NTA UGC NET Education | Daily Practice Quiz| Part-21
1. In programmed learning who is said to be the proponent of ‘Adaptive programming' ?
Adaptive programming, also called branching, was developed by Norman Crowder.
Branching programming: Branching programming was developed by Norman A. Crowder (1954), an American technician. This is also known as Intrinsic programming. The programming is developed to overcome the limitation as reflected under linear programming. In this type, the learner has several branches before him. The responses to the item determine which of several units he will be directed to attempt. The branching type of programme is found useful in learning problem-solving and various types of analytical abilities.
2. As a new discipline 'Educational Psychology' has developed owing mainly to the interactive relationship of the following:
(1) Philosophy of Education, Sociology of Education and Educational processes
(2) Behaviour Sciences, Educational processes and various methods of inquiry in Psychology
(3) Psychology, Anthropology and clinical methods
(4) Psychology, Sociology and Experimental methods
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioural perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. It has interactive relation among Behaviour Sciences, Educational processes and various methods of inquiry in Psychology.
3. According to Piaget, in which stage of development the child shows attainment of concept of reversibility as a cognitive capacity ?
(1) Sensory motor stage
(2) Preoperational stage
(3) Concrete operational stage
(4) Formal operational stage
Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development, because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. The child is now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (i.e., rules) but can only apply logic to physical objects (hence concrete operational). Children gain the abilities of conservation (number, area, volume, orientation) and reversibility. However, although children can solve problems in a logical fashion, they are typically not able to think abstractly or hypothetically.
4. Which of the following types of intelligence reaches an optimal development ceiling ?
(1) Emotional intelligence
(2) Social intelligence
(3) Cognitive intelligence
(4) Spiritual intelligence
According to Piaget's stages of cognitive development, children are not capable of performing certain tasks or understanding certain concepts until they arrive at a particular stage of cognitive development. A child's advancement from one Piaget stage to the next is achieved after extensive exposure to relevant stimuli and experiences. Physical and cognitive maturation, which is defined as the readiness to master new skills, is also necessary to facilitate the child's progress to the succeeding Piaget stage.
-puzzle box. The Pavlovian experiment arranges a relation between two events, a CS and US, independently of behaviour. It is directed toward understanding what Pavlov referred to as the process of interchangeable signification which he believed rested equally on the conditioning of inhibition and excitation. The Thorndikian or operant conditioning experiment arranges a relation between behaviour and an event, or a response and reinforcer. It is directed toward understanding the shaping and strengthening of action through reward, the suppression and redirection of action through punishment, and the development of stimulus control over punished and reinforced actions.
5. In which of the following Classical Conditioning procedures Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) is presented after the termination of the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) ?
(1) Forward Conditioning
(2) Backward Conditioning
(3) Trace Conditioning
(4) Simultaneous Conditioning
Trace Condition: The CS starts and terminates before the onset of the UCS. Presumably, the response is conditioned by the neutral trace of the conditioned stimulus, hence the name trace conditioning. With this conditioning, the CS is presented and terminated prior to the onset of the UCS. A parent who calls a child to dinner is using trace conditioning
6. Which of the following in Tolman's revision of his system represents motivational principle of Freud ?
(1) Equivalence beliefs
(2) Drive Discrimination
(4) Field Cognition Mode
Cathexis , the attachment of this general energy to new outlets , is according to Freudian theory continuously taking place .the energy of the id is assumed to be in a fluid state , easily shunted from one action or image to another action or image.
7. “Formal operational stage of cognitive development in Piaget's view will correspond to which stage of education in India ?
(1) Primary education
(2) Elementary education
(3) Secondary education
(4) Higher education
Piaget has identified four primary stages of development: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational. The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood. As adolescents enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in an abstract manner by manipulate ideas in their head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation. He/she can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions.
*Formal operational stage' of cognitive development in Piaget's view will correspond to secondary education in India.
8. Which of the following is a subordinate law in Thorndike's system of learning ?
(1) Response by Analogy
(2) Law of Exercise
(3) Law of Readiness
(4) Law of Effect
Edward Lee Ted Thorndike was an American psychologist, who developed learning theory that lead to the development of operant conditioning within behaviourism. One of Thorndike major contributions to the study of psychology was his work with animals. He believed that learning occurred through trial and error. The animal made many responses, many of them were wrong and ineffective and eventually learned to repeat those that got desirable results.
Law of Response by Analogy:
According to this law, the individual makes use of old experiences or acquisitions while learning a new situation. There is a tendency to utilise common elements in the new situation as existed in a similar past situation. The learning of driving a car, for instance, is facilitated by the earlier acquired skill of driving a motor cycle or even riding a bicycle because the perspective or maintaining a balance and controlling the handle helps in stearing the car.
9. Which of the following is designated as an independent variable in classical conditioning ?
(1) Choice of unconditioned and conditioned stimulus(US and CS)
(2) Strength of conditioned response (CR)
(3) Number of pairings as CS and US (conditioned and unconditioned stimulus)
(4) Amplitude or latency of response
Classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental(Thorndikian) conditioning are the two most widely employed paradigms for studying simple, associative learning resulting from the organism's exposure to the temporal conjunction of two or more events. The fully specified classical conditioning paradigm consists of a set of operations involving an unconditioned stimulus (US) reliably producing an unconditioned response (UR) and a conditioned stimulus (CS) initially shown not to produce a response resembling the UR. The CS and US are then presented repeatedly to the organism in a specified order and temporal spacing, and a response similar to the UR develops to the CS that is called the conditioned response (CR).
10. A trainer so designs the training procedure that in the presence of cue, negative reinforcement is made contingent on making of a response by the trainee. The operant conditioning procedure so used is called by the name of :
(1) Escape training
(2) Punishment training
(3) Discriminated punishment training
(4) Active - avoidance training
Avoidance learning is the behavioural product of an instrumental (operant) training procedure in which a predictable aversive event, typically electric shock, does not occur contingent upon the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a specified response by the learning organism. Avoidance training occurs in two forms: active and passive. In the active form, the avoidance contingency depends on the occurrence of a specified response on the part of the organism; in the passive form, the avoidance contingency depends on the nonoccurrence (i.e., the suppression) of some specified response. In the active free-operant procedure there are no discrete trials signalled by WSs. Instead, the avoidance contingency is dependent on time.
A trainer so designs the training procedure that in the presence of cue, negative reinforcement is made contingent on making of a response by the trainee. The operant conditioning procedure so used is called by the name of Active Avoidance Training.
11. What is the 'gestalt word for transfer of learning ?
(1) Stimulus discrimination
(2) Transposition of understanding
(3) Stimulus generalization
(4) Response generalization
Transfer of learning is the dependency of human conduct, learning, or performance on prior experience.
Transposition: It is advocated by Gestalt psychology. Transfer starts in understanding the fact and perception of similarity by the learner. It is known as pattern of relationship. It is not the specific skills or facts or even underlying principles which are important, but the understanding of relationship between facts, process and the principles are the real basis of transfer.
12. In Hull's system of learning which one of the following was postulated as an important intervening variable ?
(1) Drive condition
(2) Intensity of stimulus
(3) Excitatory reaction potential
(4) Number of non - reinforced responses for extinction
The most important hypothesis among Hull's 17 postulates formulates the functional relation between the most important hypothetical variables determining acquired behaviour. These hypothetical variables together produce the hypothetical variable that directly determines behaviour. In his chief works, Hull calls this variable 'reaction potential', but in the original miniature systems Hull employs the term “excitatory potential (having Pavlov's most important hypothetical term in mind). Thus, Hull expresses this symbolically as Er', where 'E' stands for 'excitatory potential and the associated 'S' and 'R' are there to remind his readers that all hypothetical variables are 'intervening variables' between stimuli and reactions.
13. In Gagne's learning hierarchy which of the following is the highest type of learning ?
(1) Creative learning
(2) Problem solving learning
(3) Concept learning
(4) Chain learning
The psychologist Robert M. Gagne has done the research into the phases of learning sequence and the types of learning. His research is particularly relevant for teaching Mathematics. There are eight types of learning. They are signal learning, stimulus-response learning, chaining, verbal association, discrimination learning, concept learning, rule learning, and problem solving. ' Problem Solving As one might expect, problem-solving is a higher order and more complex type learning than rule-learning, and rule acquisition is prerequisite to problem-solving. Problem solving involves selecting and chaining sets of rules in a manner unique to the learner which results in the establishment of a higher order set of rules which was previously unknown to the learner. Real-word problem solving usually involves five steps, they are: . Presentation of the problem in a general form . Restatement of the problem into an operational definition . Formulation of alternative hypothesis and procedures which may be appropriate means of attacking the problem Testing hypothesis and carrying out procedures to obtain a solution or a set of alternative solutions
• Deciding which possible solution is most appropriate or verifying that a single solution is correct.
14. Who among the following cognitive learning promoters developed the concept of meaningful learning ?
(1) Jean Piaget
(2) David Ausubel
(3) Jerome S. Bruner
(4) Ference Merton
David Paul Ausubel is an American psychologist and educator. According to Ausubel, meaning is created through some forms of representational equivalence between language and mental context. There are two processes involved:
First: Reception, which is employed in meaningful verbal learning.
Second: Discovery, which is involved in concept formation and problem-solving.
Ausubel's work is usually compared to Bruner's work because both of them held similar views about the hierarchical nature of knowledge. However, Bruner gave more emphasis on discovery process. On the other hand, Ausubel was strongly oriented toward the verbal learning methods of speaking. reading, and writing.
15. While introducing revision in his system of learning, Tolman referred to which of the following ?
(1) Place learning
(2) Learning of reward expectancy
(3) Latent learning
(4) Drive discrimination learning
Tolman was doing active research on learning in the first half of 20th century and although he appreciated behaviourism for its scientific approach, his views are partly derived from behaviourist views but moved more towards gestalt psychology or cognitivism. Instead of observing behaviours on molecular level, Tolman suggested studying them on the molar level.
According to Tolman, learning occurs as learners following signs to a goal. Learning was about finding a way and meanings instead of reproducing behaviours. Organisms learn behaviour route and relations rather than behaviour patterns. There is no need for reinforcement when speaking about learning since the behaviour is driven by a meaning. In the end Tolman, influenced by Guthrie, Freud and reinforcement theorists, concluded there are six forms of learning:
. Equivalence Beliefs
. Field Expectancies
. Field Cognition Modes
• Drive Discrimination
. Motor Patterns.
- Drive Discrimination
learning to discriminate between drives in accordance with desired outcomes, like learning to satisfy hunger with food and thirst with water in animals. This type of learning is very similar to cathexis and it is not quite clear why Tolman introduced a new category for it.
16. Who among the following was the first to use the word ‘mental measurement ?
Gattell was engaged with experiment in reaction time, as at that time even Galton and many others regarded it as essentially a measure of intelligence. In 1890, he published in Mind an article that has become a classic, because for the first time in the history of psychological measurement, the term "mental tests” was used in this article.
17. A high school student soon after passing the examination intends to choose subjects for future professional placement. Which of the following will be useful in this regard ?
(1) Career counselling
(2) Educational guidance
(3) Vocational guidance
(4) Personal guidance
The objective of Career Counselling and Guidance is to bring a career awareness campaign among the students, parents and teachers at the secondary and senior secondary education. Career counselling workshop gives an understanding to the students the importance of ones academic potential, attribute, personality, talents, interest, expectation, resource, strength and weakness while choosing a course for a right career at the right time for a bright future. The career counselling intends to show the students a planned route to a career right in the school years keeping in mind all above attributes so that the students remain motivated and effective during the most difficult years of the school system i.e. 10th to 12th and helping them to choose an appropriate stream/career after 10th or 12th standard.
18. To bring about the attitudinal changes in the students, which of the following guidance techniques will be helpful ?
(1) Group guidance
(2) Directive counselling
(3) Non - directive counselling
(4) Individual guidance
Group guidance provides beneficial information to a number of people at once, instead of repeatedly explaining the concept to each person individually. This offers the group leader a more efficient way to educate. It also allows individuals the opportunity to interact with others facing issues similar to their own.
However, for the experimental group before each practice exam, there was a pre-listening activity consisting of two parts, an initial relaxation exercise and then, in this state of relaxation, a second part designed to bring about attitudinal changes through visuali sations.
19. For making guidance and counselling an effective pragramme in indian context, which of the following is the major constraint ?
(1) Scarcity of funds
(2) Educational policy
(3) Mind set of functionaries at various levels of education
(4) Apathy of parents
There are many good policies and programmes in our country related to counselling and guidance but still the present picture of guidance and counselling in India is dismal as far as organized work, provision of professional services, and implementation of policies are concerned. As of now, there is no legislation for the certification of counsellor and guidance workers in India. There is lack of direction and coordination, supervision and planning, administrative support and finances. In 2014, there is a shift in Government of India and the new Government of India is more conscious about their Youths Empowerment & Skills Development to improve their Employability. They are also preparing new educational policy. The government should keep the importance of counselling & guidance in theil mind and give it more importance. They should also keep one thing in their mind that the kind of counselling assistance sought for and provided in the western world need not necessarily be applicable to the Indian society. However, counselling is as much necessary in India today as it is elsewhere in the world.
20.In the context of social development which of the following stages is characterized by ‘Intense self Awareness'?
Intensification of Self-awareness: Self consciousness is extremely developed in adolescence. There is a strong desire in an adolescent that his or her bodily changes should be noticed by the elders as well as by the members of his own age group. Adolescence can be described as an age of self-decoration. Boys and girls pay more attention to their dresses, make-up, manner of talking, walking, eating, etc. In fact, there is a craving for recognition in adolescents. Every adolescent desires that he or she should be the centre of attraction for the opposite sex and his abilities, intelligence, and capabilities should be recognized by the peer group and elders. Moreover, adolescents are very sensitive, touchy and inflammable. They aim to maintain at any cost their concept of themselves and whenever possible to enhance their status among their peers. An attack on their phenomenal self invites strong reactions and behavioural problems. It makes an adolescent either aggressive or withdrawn depending upon the circumstances.