NTA UGC NET Education | Daily Practice Quiz| Part-22
1. Which of the following subordinate laws of learning developed by Thorndike is related to classical conditioning of Pavlov ?
(1) Multiple response
(2) Prepotency of elements
(3) Associative shifting
(4) Response by analogy
Associative Shifting, Law Of: This is one of E.L. Thorndike's minor subsidiary laws to his law of effect that is similar to Ivan Pavlov's principle of stimulus association and also bears some resemblance to the conditioning principle of generalization. The law of associative shifting states that when two stimuli are present and one elicits a response, the other takes on the ability to elicit the same response. This law became a central axiom to E.R. Guthrie's contiguity learning theory. Thorndike considered the general aspects of conditioning to be akin to associative shifting where the occurrence of a "trial-and-error" process may not be necessary. An example of associative shifting is the learning by a child to come to you when you call her name using different variations (e.g., differences in tone, pronunciation, intensity, inflection, etc.) of the name (and you subsequently hug the child). According to Thorn dike, the ancillary concepts of belongingness and satisfaction operate in associative shifting, but other scientists regarded the time relations between the stimulus-response event to be solely adequate for establishing conditioned responses.
2.In which of the following operant conditioning procedures the training arrangement insists the presence of a cue and making of a response to get negatively reinforced ?
(1) Escape training
(2) Punishment training
(3) Omission training
(4) Active avoidance training
The concept of reinforcement, positive or negative, in operant conditioning is central both to its theory and practice. Positive reinforcement signifies continued reward for the proper performance of a required act. Negative reinforcement describes a paradigm in which the subject is required to learn to perform, or in certain instances, not to perform a certain act in order to avoid pain or discomfort. Thus negative reinforcement paradigms fall into two categories: active avoidance and passive avoidance. In active avoidance, the subject must learn to perform a specific act in order to avoid pain or discomfort. In passive avoidance, the subject must learn to abstain from a certain activity if he is to avoid pain or discomfort. Passive avoidance is also the mechanism through which extinction of a given operant response occurs, i.e., cessation of a response when responding is no longer rewarded.
3.Brainstorming procedures are helpful specially for which category of children ?
(1) Gifted children
(2) Backward children
(3) Creative children
(4) Mentally retarded children
Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution to a problem. In 1953 the method was popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in a book called Applied Imagination. Osborn proposed that groups could double their creative output with brainstorming.
4. Which concept of intelligence addresses the problem of meaning and value ?
(1) Academic Intelligence (IQ)
(2) Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
(3) Spiritual Intelligence (SQ)
(4) Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
Spiritual intelligence: Zohar and Marshall suggest the existence of a third type of intelligence (human and emotional intelligence being the other two), known as spiritual intelligence (SQ), which is essential for leadership success. They define spiritual intelligence as: -
The intelligence with which we address and solve problems of meaning and value, the intelligence with which we can place our actions and our lives in a wider, richer, meaning-giving context, the intelligence with which we can assess that one course of action or one life-path is more meaningful than another. SQ is the necessary foundation for the effective functioning of both IQ and EQ. It is our ultimate intelligence..
5. Peer group membership has high educational implications during
(2) Later childhood
Peer group: Group of individuals usually are known to each other and of the same age, sharing similar social experience, values, etc. Peer group relations are of crucial importance to the developing child, especially during adolescence when peer group standards and expectations begins to challenge those of the family. The peer group may establish ways of dress language and behaviour that set it apart from other groups and may be a form of adolescent rebellion against parents and family.
6.According to Hull, which one of the following will be called a dependent variable ?
(1) Habit strength
(3) Resistance to Extinction
(4) Excitatory reaction potential
In 1943, Hull's theory of simple behaviour took as the four main dependent variables response frequency, response amplitude, response latency, and resistance to extinction. These were regarded by Hull as four alternative and more or less equivalent ways of assessing the excitatory potential at any moment.
7.Which of the following terms is the equivalent of transfer in learning experiments ?
(1) Stimulus discrimination
(2) Extinction of response
(3) Reinforcing stimulus
(4) Stimulus or response generalization
Pavlov presented several principles of classical conditioning that are relevant to the design of behavioural treatment programmes. These include stimulus generalization, discrimination, and extinction.
Stimulus generalization refers to the process by which the conditioned response transfers to other stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Stimulus generalization often explains the transfer of a response from one situation to another. Pavlov found that once a dog learned to salivate to a particular tone, it would also salivate to similar tones. As the tone becomes less similar to the original, the dog salivates less. This event demonstrates two facts about generalization. First, once conditioning to a stimulus occurs, its effectiveness is not restricted to that stimulus. Second, as a stimulus becomes less similar to the one originally used, its ability to produce a response decreases accordingly. The process of stimulus generalization can also be seen in the way a first-grade youngster, terrified by a stern teacher, transfers that fear or anxiety to other features about school: teachers, books, or the school building itself.
Discrimination refers to the process by which one learns not to respond to similar stimuli in the same way. Generalization between two stimuli can be abolished if the response to one is reinforced while the response to the other is extinguished. For example, if a dog's food is always followed by a particular tone, but not similar sounding tones, the dog will gradually stop salivating to similar sounding tones. Again, we can draw important applied implications. Children might have difficulty learning to read if they cannot tell the difference between circles and curved lines, or horizontal from vertical lines. They then could not (or at least not consistently) discriminate the letters v from u or b from d, which could lead to reading problems. Similar discrimination challenges exist for young learners confronted with pairs of numbers such as 21 and 12, or 25 and 52. Learning to make discriminations of form is a critical component of successful learning.
Extinction refers to the gradual reduction of frequency or intensity of a learned response. In his experiments, Pavlov found that by presenting the sound of the metronome alone, eventually he could eliminate the conditioned response. In other words, if over time there is no food accompanying the metronome, the dog will stop salivating in the presence of the metronome only. For example, in a school setting a teacher may ignore students who do not raise their hands before speaking. Over time, the students will decrease the number of times they speak without raising their hands.
8.Which of the following types in Gagne’s hierarchy of learning exemplifies hypothesis making and hypothesis testing ?
(1) Sign learning (Type 1)
(2) Stimulus response learning (Type III)
(3) Rule learning (Type VII)
(4) Problem solving learning (Type VIII)
Gagne proposed a list of eight hierarchically related types of learning, each building on the previous one in the following way.
1. Signal learning: as described earlier as 'classical conditioning'
2. Stimulus-response (S-R) learning: 'operant conditioning
3. Chaining: a sequence of two or more learned (S-R) connections
4. Verbal association: the learning of verbal chains, as in a constructed sentence
5. Discrimination learning: making appropriate different responses to slightly different stimuli - involves handling Interference
6. Concept learning: learning a common response to a set of different stimuli possessing common characteristics - involves abstraction
7. Rule learning: chaining two or more concepts
8. Problem-solving: involves re-combining old rules into new ones often inhibited by 'preconceived ideas'.
9.In which of the operant conditioning procedure the positive reinforcement is made contingent on the making of a response in the presence of a cue ?
(1) Reward training
(2) Omission training
(3) Discrimination training
(4) Discriminated omission training
Discrimination training and fading are concerned primarily with the way the antecedents of behaviour come to influence when and where behaviour occurs. Discrimination training involves reinforcing a response in the presence of a particular stimulus and extinguishing the same response in the absence of that stimulus. The effect of discrimination training is the occurrence of the response in the presence of the stimulus and the nonoccurrence of the response in the absence of the stimulus. This outcome is called stimulus control. Controlling stimuli is said to set the occasion for responses. They do not elicit responses. The ringing of the telephone is a familiar example of a controlling stimulus. Answering the phone when it is ringing is reinforced by the opportunity to talk with the caller; answering the phone when it is not ringing has no such consequence. Thus, people typically answer the phone only when it is ringing. However, the ringing of the telephone does not elicit an "irresistible urge” to answer it. Whether you answer your phone when it rings is influenced by a range of other variables, such as what you are doing and with whom you are doing it.
Discrimination training differs from differential reinforcement in the sense that in their most basic forms, discrimination training is concerned with one response that is to be emitted in the presence of a stimulus and not emitted in its absence, whereas differential reinforcement is concerned with increasing the emission of one response and decreasing the emission of a second response independent of the stimuli present. However. the two are combined in most applications For example, learning to say “” when presented with the stimulus "b" and learning to say "d" when presented with the stimulus “d” involves differential reinforcement to increase the emission of each letter response and discrimination training to ensure each response is controlled by the appropriate
letter. The stimuli of concern in most applications of discrimination training are also more complex than the ringing of the telephone and the letters of the alphabet.
10. Who advanced the concept of creative self' as the most essential aspect of one's personality ?
Adler believed that people are basically motivated by an inferiority complex. In some people feelings of inferiority may be based on physical problems and the need to compensate for them. Adler believed, however, that all of us encounter some feelings of inferiority because of our small size as children and that these feelings give rise to a drive for superiority. For instance, the English poet Lord Byron, who had a crippled leg, became a champion swimmer. As a child Adler was crippled by rickets and suffered from pneumonia, and it may be that his theory developed in part from his own childhood striving to overcome repeated bouts of illness.
Adler believed that self-awareness plays a major role in the formation of personality. He spoke of a creative self, a self-aware aspect of personality that strives to overcome obstacles and develop the individual's potential. Because each person's potential is unique, Adler's views have been termed as individual psychology.
11. “Defence Mechanisms' are used by an individual
(1) to solve personal problems
(2) to avoid unpleasant situations
(3) to promote adjustment process
(4) to counter the hostility of others
It is not always possible to achieve all that we desire in life. There are many situations when we fail in our attempts and get frustrated. Our failures and frustrations may bring injury to our ego and cause anxiety and feelings of inferiority. In such moments of frustration most of us do not like to face the reality by accepting our shortcomings and failures but tend to resort to certain mechanisms for defending our inadequacies or anxieties. These mechanisms or devices are called mental mechanisms, defence mechanisms, or adjustment mechanisms. These have been defined as follows: Page: When psychological equilibrium is threatened by severe emotional traumata, frustrations, or conflicts, the mind resorts to a variety of protective subterfuges and detours called mental mechanisms or dynamisms.
Carroll: An adjustment mechanism is a device resorted to in order to achieve an indirect satisfaction of a need so that tension will be reduced and self-respect maintained.
McCall: Defence mechanisms may be defined as ‘self protective manoeuvers’, pertaining to perception and motivation, mental or psychic, yet largely unconscious, designed to soften or disguise what is unacceptable in or to the self.
These definitions reveal the following things regarding nature and characteristics of 'defence mechanisms'.
1. Defence mechanisms are devices in the form of a certain pattern of behaviour.
2. These mechanisms provide protection against whatever threatens our ego or self esteem.
12. For organizing its content and process educational psychology takes support from
(1) Scientific knowledge relating to teaching and learning.
(2) Philosophical perspective of society.
(3) Sociological problems in schools.
(4) Socio-political contexts of schools.
According to Arthur Coladarci of Stanford University, Educational Psychology is the empirical foundation of education. It consists of those aspects of education which can be observed, tested and experimentally verified and as such Educational Psychology is the scientific foundation of Education. But effectiveness of Educational Psychology is proved only when its methods and findings become a part of educational practices, when - the teachers apply psychological methods and when they develop and experiment attitudes towards their efforts.
Judd describes Educational Psychology “as a scientific study of the life stages in the development of an individual from the time he is born until he becomes an adult.”
Charles E. Skinner states, “Educational Psychology is the branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning.” According to Walter B. Kolesnik “
Educational Psychology is knowledge of the study of those facts and principles of psychology which helps to explain and improve the process of education. Educational Psyhology thus is the body of scientific knowledge about two activities Education
13. In Pavlovian conditioning paradigm as developed originally which of the following was used as independent variable ?
(1) Response magnitude
(2) Response latency
(3) Number of CS-US pairing
(4) Presentation of CS alone
There are two basic approaches to behaviour therapy. Classical conditioning is learning via the classic Pavlovian response where a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in the development of a conditioned response (CR).
When a CR has been established, the client may generalize this learning to a set of cues (e.g., fear of dogs) or discriminate to the specific cue under any context (e.g., fear of that dog). Factors that influence classical conditioning are
(a) the order (CS proceeds US),
(b) time (delay between CS and US),
(c) repetition (number of trials), and
(d) characteristics of the CS and US.
Techniques based on classical conditioning are generally about “unlearning” maladaptive CRs through such techniques as systematic desensitization (stepwise introduction of anxiety-provoking stimulus paired with a relaxation to remove the CR), flooding (exposing clients to anxiety-provoking stimuli with opportunity to escape), implosive therapy (imaging a flooding experience), and aversive therapy (replacing the CR with an unpleasant CR).
14. In Gagne's hierarchy of learning which of the following learning types will form part of chain learning ?
(1) Concept learning
(2) Problem solving learning
(3) Rule learning
(4) Signal learning
Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning In 1956, the American educational psychologist Robert M. Gagné proposed a system of classifying different types of learning in terms of the degree of complexity of the mental processes involved. He identified eight basic types, and arranged these in the hierarchy shown in Figure. According to Gagné, the higher orders of learning in this hierarchy build upon the lower levels, requiring progressively greater amounts of previous learning for their success. The lowest four orders tend to focus on the more behavioural aspects of learning, while the highest four focus on the more cognitive aspects.
15. For developing his theory of learning Tolman got support from
(1) Trial and Error learning experiment
(2) Place learning experiment
(3) Maze learning experiment
(4) S-R learning experiment
Tolman's Theory of Sign Learning
According to Tolman (1930) learning is a total process. It takes pļace by cognition. | Cognition includes concepts like knowledge, thinking, planning, inference and purpose. The learner through his experience recognise some cues or signs and then relationships with goals. Learning consists in the recognition of signs and their meanings in relation to goals. Tolman argued that the organism follows certain signs and clues to reach a goal. It learns its ways by following a sort of mental map and it does not learn only some movements but also their significance and meanings. Hence, this theory is called sign learning theory.
16. In Hull's system of learning which one is an intervening variable ?
(1) Number of Reinforced practices
(2) Resistance to extinction
(3) Excitatory Reaction potential
(4) Response Amplitude
Reaction potential (GER) This is the output variable in Hull's system which is directly correlated with response strength measures such as reaction latency or amplitude of response. The magnitude of RP (reaction potential) is determined by a number of variables, but chief among these is habit strength and drive level (D), more particularly the primary drives like hunger and thirst. These are intervening variables.
These are tied to the length of deprivation time. The greater the time of deprivation. greater is the strength of D. Hull assumes that RP is related to habit strength (HR) and to drive according to multiplicative functionSER = H, x D. This means lo say that habits
are displayed in overt behaviour with measurable response strength when they are activated by drives and the relationship between H, and D is assumed to be multiplicative.
The concept of Er, as stated above, i.e. SHR x D is in simple form only so as to understand the concept in a simple way. In its complete form, it is expressed as SER = HR x D x V x K
SHR= habit strength
D = drive
V = stimulus intensity, i.e., valency and
K = incentive-motivation.
All these are intervening variables tied with mathematical functions, respectively to the drive state, intensity of the stimulus that evokes a reaction and to the amount of reinforcement that is used.
In Hull's system, V and K are like D in that they are performance variables which directly influence reaction potential (GER). We also note from the equation that these variables multiply with HR to produce the response latency or response amplitude that the experimenter measures when a stimulus evokes a response on a particular occasion.
17. For enhancing personal effectiveness, which of the aspects of ‘Johary Window should be expanded ?
(1) Arena with reduced size of B
(2) Arena with reduced size of C
(3) Arena with reduced size of D
(4) Arena with reduced size of B, C and D
Speaking of the importance of group discussions, one can very well relate to the Johari Window, was developed by the American psychologists Harry Ingham and Joseph Luft in the 1950s. The model is an important tool to understand self-awareness, personality development, group dynamics and relationships, co-operation and interpersonal development.
It gives an insight into the skills, experience, attitudes within or about a person in a given situation.
18. Who is an arch advocate of trait theory of personality ?
Allport's Trait Theory
One of the most exciting versions of trait theory is provided by Allport wherein he mentions common traits that are used to compare one personality with other. For such comparison he has identified six categories of values-social, political, religious, theoretical, economic, and aesthetic- in his theory.
Besides these common traits Allport also made use of some unique traits the individuals possess. He calls these unique traits as personal dispositions. They can be cardinal (most pervasive), central (unique and limited in number) or secondary (periphery). Allport thus recognises the complexity of human personality.
19.The term ‘habit family hierarchy' was used to explain learning situations by whom ?
Hull has proposed a concept of Habit Family hierarchy which refers to the fact that in any learning situation any number of responses are possible and the one that is most likely is the one that brings about reward most rapidly and with, the least amount of effort.
20. The concept of functional autonomy of motives was advanced by
(1) D.C. Mclelland
(2) Frederick Herzberg
(3) Harry F. Harlow
(4) Gordon W. Allport
ALLPORT'S FUNCTIONAL AUTONOMY PRINCIPLE : The American psychologist Gordon Willard Allport (1897–1967) studied, researched, and taught in the area of personality, which he regarded as the natural subject matter of psychology. In his exploration and development of personality theory, Allport conceived of personality as an organized whole (rather than merely a collection of habits) where one's self can make choices and influence the growth or outcome of its own personality. Allport formulated the concept of functional autonomy of motives, which emphasized the emergence of new motivational systems in a person's life. The principle of functional autonomy describes the case where wellestablished habits (such as a person's going to work for 12 hours a day for many years and earning a great deal of money) can become ends or motives in themselves (such as continuing to go to work for 12 hours a day, even though the person has become wealthy, could easily retire, and actually does not need to work at all). According to the principle of functional autonomy of motives, means to a goal become ends in themselves where the original activities have now become motives and function independently of the purposes or needs that they initially served. When it was first introduced, the concept of functional autonomy was both controversial and radical because it ram counter to the prevailing theories of motivation, which stressed mechanisms directly linked to basic physiological needs (Goranson, 1994). Allport's idea raised the possibility that simple and complex motives can function quite separately from any direct physiological drive or need. The concept all functional autonomy liberalized the area of motivation inasmuch as it allowed the individual to be an active (rather than a passive) entity whose behaviuor could be present-oriented, as well as future-oriente and not merely past-oriented.