NTA UGC NET Education | Daily Practice Quiz| Part-23
1. For the concept of Emotional Intelligence which theory of intelligence is considered to be the fore-runner ?
(1) Thurstone's Multiple factor theory
(2) Vernon's hierarchical structure theory
(3) Burt's Group factor theory
(4) Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence
Emotional Intelligence : Both Gardner's and Sternberg's theories include one or mom categories related to the ability to understand one's self and others and to get along in the world. In Gardner's theory, the categories interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence; in Sternberg's theory, practical intelligence. Other theorists who emphasize interpersonal, intrapersonal, and practical aspects of intelligence focus on what is called emotional intelligence, which was popularized by Daniel Goleman in his book Emotional Intelligence.
The concept of emotional intelligence was initially developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer (1990). They define emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive and express emotion accurately and adaptively (such as taking the perspective of others), to understand emotion and emotional knowledge (such as understanding the roles that emotions play in friendship and marriage), to use feelings to facilitate thought (such as being in a positive mood, which is linked to creative thinking), and to manage emotions in oneself and others (such as being able to control one's anger).
2. In a learning situation, a student is able to give the same or similar responses to a class of stimuli. This will be called a case of
(1) discrimination linked with acquisition
(2) extinction connected with elimination of behaviour
(3) generalization explaining transfer of learning
(4) spontaneous recovery of a response
Theory of Generalization
This theory of transfer of learning was put forth by Charles Judd, The theory argued on a systematic organization and generalization of experiences in order to achieve the maximum transfer of learning or training. It also advocates the transfer of generalization in new situations in place of identical elements as suggested by Thorndike. As a result of certain experiences, the individual reaches some conclusion or generalization. This conclusion or generalization can be applied by him to oncoming new situation. Thus generalization is nothing but a principle, a law or a rule that can be easily transferred to other situations.
3. For performance in learning to take place in a positive way which of the following combinations provides an appropriate explanation
(1) Prior experience, training and ability.
(2) Prior experience, ability and motivation.
(3) Training, social background and ability.
(4) Training, Practice and Socio-cultural background.
Learner Characteristics: Although many
things make people different, several characteristics are particularly important when it comes to athletes' performance and learning. These include abilities and capabilities, age, previous experience, stage of learning, learning style, motivation, and goals.
4. Which of the following is correct in the context of eclectic counselling?
(1) Role of Counsellor is conspicuous
(2) Role of Counselee is relatively more visible.
(3) Depending upon the context the role of the counsellor and the counselee may undergo a change.
(4) Counsellor's role is of a minor nature.
Eclectic Counselling: Eclectic counselling is a combination of directive and nondirective technique depending upon the situational factors. This approach in counselling is best characterised by it freedom to the counsellor to use whatever procedures or techniques seem to be the most appropriate to any particular time for any particular client. This counselling is one where one who is willing to utilize any procedures which hold promise even though their theoretical bases differed markedly. This counselling recognizes that each theory may contain some truth and that so long as a final decision between theories can't be made practical necessity justifiably takes precedence over orthodoxy. The counsellor in this counselling may start with directive technique but switches over to non-directive counselling if the situation requires. He may also start with the non-directive technique and switches over to directive techniques if the situation demands.
So the counsellor in this counselling makes use of directive and non-directive counselling and also of any other type which may be considered useful for the purpose of modifying the ideas and attitudes of the counsellee. Hence it is possible for the counsellor to alternate between directive and non-directive techniques depending upon the requirements of the situation.
Features/Characteristics of Eclectic Counselling
1. Methods of counselling may change from counsellee to counsellee/counsellee or even with the same client from time to time.
2. Flexibility is the key note of this counselling.
3. Freedom of choice and expression is open to both, the counsellor and the client.
4. The client and the philosophical framework are adjusted to serve the purposes of the relationship.
5. Experience of mutual confidence and faith in the relationship are basic.
6. Feelings of comfort are essential.
5. Which of the following statements is correct with regard to growth and development ?
(1) Growth is psychological and development is physical
(2) Growth is physical while development is psychological
(3) Both growth and development are psychological
(4) Both growth and development are physical
In psychology, though, growth and maturation are a little different. Growth is the physical process of development, particularly the process of becoming physically larger. It is quantifiable, meaning that it can be measured, and it is mostly influenced by genetics.
On the other hand, development is the psychological, intellectual, or emotional process of development. Development is often not quantifiable, and it too is mostly influenced by genetics.
6. Development of creative thinking begins at what stage ?
Imagination fosters cognitive and social development. Everyone wants to raise children who reach their highest intellectual and social/emotional potential. In early childhood education, critical thinking skills and creative problem-solving abilities are goals for children's development. Imagining, trying new ways of doing things, and experimenting help develop critical thinking in children and foster creative problem solving. Furthermore, imagination builds social-emotional development by allowing children to contemplate different resolutions, thus boosting children's confidence which can be used in interaction with others. Imagination and creativity are also skills which our children will need when they join the workforce of the future.
7. Which stage of development is said to be overpowered with a tendency for “hero worship' ?
(1) Early childhood
(2) Later childhood
(3) Early adolescence
(4) Later adolescence
Hero-worshipping: Hero-worshipping is a tendency of the early adolescent stage. It means that the adolescents start to identity themselves with an ideal hero, whom they obey and follow. They admire and respect him. They organize their thoughts and activities in conformity with the ideal of the hero. The hero becomes the source of inspiration for the adolescents to aim for their future. For this reason, the adolescent should be encouraged to study biographies of great man so that they can shape their own life following the ideals of theses great men.
8. According to Piaget, the most important cognitive outcome of the sensori-motor stage of development is :
(1) Object permanence
Piaget proposed four stages: The Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2 Years. During the sensorimotor stage, children base their understanding of the world primarily on touching, sucking, chewing, shaking, and manipulating objects. In the initial part of the stage, children have relatively little competence in representing the environment by using images, language, or other kinds of symbols. Consequently, infants lack what Piaget calls object permanence, the awareness that objects--and people--continue to exist even if they are out of sight.
How can we know that children lack object permanence? Although we cannot ask infants, we can observe their reactions when a toy they are playing with is hidden under a blanket. Until the age of about 9 months, children will make no attempt to locate the hidden toy. However, soon after that age they will begin to search actively for the missing object, indicating that they have developed a mental representation of the toy. Object permanence, then, is a critical development during the sensorimotor stage
9. Which one of the following concepts of intelligence uses associative thinking ?
(1) Academic intelligence
(2) Emotional intelligence
(3) Spiritual intelligence
(4) Numerical intelligence
Associative Thinking: This kind of thinking helps us to form associations between things like hunger and the food that will satisfy it, between home and comfort, mother and love, barking dogs and danger, the colour red and emotions of excitement or danger. Associative thinking underlies most of our purely emotional intelligence -- the link between one emotion and another, between emotions and bodily feelings, emotions and the environment. It also enables us to recognize patterns like faces or smells, and to learn bodily skills like riding a bicycle or driving - a car. It is 'thinking' with the heart and the body. EQ,, while normally thought of as our 'emotional intelligence', is also the body's intelligence. It is the intelligence used to great effects by a gifted athlete or by a pianist the has practised painstakingly.
10. In Gagne's hierarchy of learning which one of the following will not be included in rule learning ?
(1) Concept learning
(2) Discrimination learning
(3) SR learning
(4) Problem solving learning
Robert M. Gagné has developed a behaviouristic, eclectic approach to instructional design. He emerged from a military background in which he became convinced that the practical tasks of training (in the air force) required a psychological analysis of the component steps a student needs to learn in order to perform some complex skill. Out of this recognition, Gagné developed his idea of task-skill hierarchies that provide guidance as to sequencing. Moreover, he identified eight distinct types of learning arranged in order of increasing complexity: (1) signal learning, (2) stimulusresponse learning, (3) chaining, (4) verbal association, (5) discrimination learning, (6) concept learning.. (7) rule learning, and (8) problem solving.
11. Educational performance of a student is a function of :
(1) Ability and motivation
(2) Motivation and social background
(3) Social background and parentage
(4) Academic reputation of the school
Performance is a multiplicative function of both ability and motivation.
Performance = Ability * Motivation
For example, a student with very high ability but low motivation is unlikely to perform well, whereas a student with low ability but high motivation is likely to perform well. That is, the variability in motivation across students may dampen associations between ability and performance.
12. Who in the following list of learning psychologists accepted ‘Cathexis' as a form of learning ?
(2) Kurt Lewin
Types of Learning
Tolman distinguished six types of learning (1) Cathexis, (2) Equivalence beliefs, (3) Field expectancy, (4) Field congnition modes, (5) Drive discriminination, (6) Motor patterns.
Cathexis: In this type of learning, an association appears to be formed between certain objects and certain drive states. Persons belonging to cold countries where liquors are usually consumed for satisfying the thirst drive, will certainly tend to seek such drinks in preference to a simple glass of water mainly because for them, water has not been associated with the satisfaction of the thirst drive.
13. The idea of ‘Unconscious motivation' is one of the major contributions of the psychologist :
The psychodynamic or psychoanalytic model is based on the work of Freud. Freud was a major theorist, and probably the most widely known in psychology.
There are a number of fundamental ideas which formed the basis of Freud's theory: the principle of psychological determinism, the a role of the unconscious, and the importance of childhood in determining adult behaviour. Psychological determinism. refers to the idea that all behaviour is-motivated, and the reasons we behave as we do are often unconscious. Unconscious motivation can be illustrated by Freudian slips or parapraxes, where a person says or does something which they had not consciously intended to say or do.
14. An individual tends to show immature, self centred, seductive and attention getting behaviour. The type of personality implied here is :
(1) Antisocial personality
(2) Histrionic personality
(3) Paranoid personality
(4) Compulsive personality
Histrionic Personality Disorder: An individual with a histrionic personality disorder exhibits immature, self-centered, seductive, attention-getting behaviour. People with this disorder are likely to be manipulative; they get others to do their bidding by indirect tactics. A “southern-belle" style and a knack for making others feel guilty for. one's awful sufferings are often characteristic of the histrionic personality. Such people are likely to be flamboyant, to exaggerate how “truly wonderful" good things are and how deeply tragic” bad things are.
15. A teacher holds discussion with a student and enables him/her to select appropriate choice of subject at higher secondary stage. This type of guidance is called :
(1) Personal guidance
(2) Vocational guidance
(3) Educational guidance
(4) Psychological guidance
Guidance is a concept as well as a process. As a concept guidance is concerned with the optimal development of the individual. As a process guidance helps the individual in self understanding and in self-direction. Educational Guidance: If one closely examines the problems of young pupils in schools and colleges, one would exactly realize the need of educational guidance. Educational problems had the needs of students' problems. So education is an important guidance area.
Some of the aims and objectives of educational guidance are:
• To assist the pupil to understand him/ herself i.e. to understand his/her potentialities, strength and limitations.
• To help the child make educational plans consist with his/her abilities, interests and goals.
• To enable the student to know detail about the subject and courses offered.
. To assist the student in making satisfactory progress in various school/college subjects.
• To help the child to adjust with the schools, its rules, regulations, social life connected with it.
• To help the child in developing good study habits.
- To help the child to participate in out of class educational activities in which he can develop leadership and other social qualities.
16. The overall changes in shape, form or structure resulting in the improved quality functioning refer to the
(2) quality of growth
(4) quantity of growth
Basic difference between Growth and Development: Growth
17. The problem solving ability depends upon the
(1) growth in height and weight
(2) development of vocabulary
(3) development of thinking and reasoning
(4) development in size and shape
Development of Problem-solving ability: Problem-solving ability is an important constituent of mental development. An individual needs this type of ability in discovering the solution of the problems faced by him. Both thinking and reasoning power are used in problem-solving. Therefore problem-solving ability depends upon the development of thinking and reasoning. Thinking and reasoning powers begin to grow as early as two and a half or three years. However reasoning at this stage is confined to concrete and personal things from the child's immediate environment.
18. With respect to social development at which stage individuals may sacrifice their own interests for the greater cause of the group, society and the nation ?
(1) Later childhood
(4) Old age
During adolescence stage, group loyalty becomes very much pronounced. Like childhood, it does not confine itself to the gang only but extends to the school, community, province and the nation. Martyrs and patriots are the product of this age. Cooperation reaches its peak during this period and the individuals are in a mood to sacrifice their own interests for the greater cause of the group, society and the nation.
19. Which of the following intelligence does not stop increasing with age of a person ?
(1) Academic Intelligence
(2) Spatial Intelligence
(3) Verbal Intelligence
(4) Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence (EQ or EI) can be defined as the ability to understand, manage, and effectively express one's own feelings, as well as engage and navigate successfully with those of others. It does not stop increasing with age of a person.
According to these psychologists, EI improves social relations. The emotionally intelligent person:
. Perceives emotions, uses them in thought, understands their meanings, and manages them better than others can
. Solves emotional problems with less thought
-Has highly developed verbal skills
. Tends to be more open and agreeable than others
. Seeks occupations involving social interactions such as teaching and counselling
• Avoids self-destructive behaviour such as smoking, excessive drinking, drug abuse, or violence
. Owns objects with sentimental value.
20. In Emotional Intelligence which will not be considered a component ?
(1) Self management
(2) Self analysis
(3) Self motivation
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. People with a high degree of emotional intelligence know what they're feeling, what their emotions mean, and how these emotions can affect other people.
According to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist who helped to popularize EI, there are five main elements of emotional intelligence:
5. Social skills