NTA UGC NET Education | Daily Practice Quiz| Part-24
1. In Gagne's hierarchy of learning which type corresponds to operant conditioning paradigm ?
(1) Sign learning
(2) Discrimination learning
(3) Concept learning
(4) S - R learning
Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforces - any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from adversive stimuli - punishmentwhich result in reduced responses). A great deal of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement and their effects on establishing and maintaining behaviour.
One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner's theory is that it attempted to provide behavioural explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena. For example, Skinner explained drive (motivation) in terms of deprivation and reinforcement schedules. Skinner tried to account for verbal learning and language within the operant conditioning paradigm, although this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists. Skinner deals with the issue of free will and social control.
Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings (i.c., behaviour modification) as well as teaching (i.e., classroom management) and instructional development (e.g., programmed instruction). Parenthetically, it should be noted that Skinner rejected the idea of theories of learning.
2. Classification of personalities as 'introverts' and 'extroverts' was first made by :
Personality refers to an individual's pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make a person unique. There are multiple kinds of personalities we encounter in our day-to-day lives - strong. charismatic, open minded, shy etc.
According to Jung there are two mutually exclusive attitudes -- extra version and introversion. “Each person seems to be energized more by either the external world (extraversion) or the internal world (introversion).” The introvert is more comfortable with the inner world of thoughts and feelings, so they will see the world in terms of how it affects them. While the extrovert feels more at home with the world of objects and other people, and is more concerned with their impact upon the world.
3. Which one of the following is not a Projective Test of Personality ?
(1) Rorschach Ink Blot Test
(2) Thematic Apperception Test
(3) Rotter's Sentence Completion Test
(4) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Projective tests: As stated earlier, projective tests attempt to measure the individual as a whole. The important characteristics of projective test is that the individual is presented with an unstructured task. Test stimuli. are so vague or ambiguous that subjects can respond in varieties of ways. It is assumed that the subject's interpretation of these stimuli is based on his particular needs, desires, viewpoints and fears. An individual projects his personality into the test situation as a movie camera projects images on the screen.
Common Projective Tests: The most popular projective tests include the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT); the Rorschach Inkblot Test; the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Second Edition; the House-Tree-Person (HTP); the Kinetic House-Tree-Person Test (KHTP); the Sentence Completion Series; and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank.
4. A boy who is really interested in pursuing B.A. Philosophy but is afraid the subject does not have bright career prospects is having :
(1) No conflict
(2) Approach - Approach Conflict
(3) Approach - Avoidance Conflict
(4) Avoidance - Avoidance Conflict
Approach-avoidance conflicts occur when there is one goal or event that has both positive and negative effects or characteristics that make the goal appealing and unappealing simultaneously. For example, A boy who is really interested in pursuing B.A. Philosophy but is afraid the subject does not have bright career prospects.
5. The focus of vocational guidance has to be on :
(1) providing job to the client
(2) helping the client to seek appropriate job
(3) enabling the system of education to become job - oriented
(4) helping the client to select an appropriate job
A vocation is a career or calling and the word is derived from the Latin vocare, which means "to call.” Vocational guidance means helping someone find his or her calling or at least a suitable career choice. Vocations or careers can be loosely categorized into areas such as service, technical, mechanical, creative, health and business.
6. An effective counselling is one which provides help to the client in understanding his/her :
(1) potential ability and temperament
(2) strength and weakness in respect of exercising his/her choices
(3) possibility of success in a job
(4) friends and foes with whom relationship should be developed
An effective counselling is one which provides help to the client in understanding his/her strength and weakness in respect of exercising his/her choices. Effective counselling is a two way street. It takes a cooperative effort by both the person receiving counselling and the counsellor. And it takes a commitment to make sometimes difficult changes in behaviour or thinking. patterns.
An effective counsellor can identify negative thinking patterns that may be feeding feelings of sadness, depression or anxiety. By encouraging you to build upon personal strengths and suggesting skills that can .overcome self-inflicted feelings of hopelessness, a counsellor can help you develop a more positive attitude.
7. In a school, a class teacher daily talks to his/her students in respect of how to make better use of reading room and laboratory and improve performance in the subjects. His/her engagement in this way will be called :
(1) Personal guidance
(2) Educational guidance
(3) Directive counselling
(4) Information service
Educational guidance is a process of assisting the individual student to reach optimum educational development. It is a sort of guidance that is only rendered to the student community. Educational Guidance helps the students to . make right choices, as well as make adjustments in relation to schools, curriculum, courses and school life which is contribute to the all-round development.
8. Which of the following guidance services in India is on the weakest footing in so far as vocational courses are concerned ?
(1) Individual guidance service
(2) Counselling service
(3) Placement service
(4) Follow up service
Follow-up service is an essential component of a guidance programme. In the absence of this service, it is not only difficult but also impossible to gauge the effectiveness of guidance programmes. Some academics treat it as a part of research and evaluation service. Follow up service in India is the weakest footing in so far as vocational courses are concerned.
The follow-up service can be maintained by follow-up interviews with the student and those involved in his new setting e.g., his employers, follow-up questionnaires to the student asking his degree of satisfaction in his new setting and follow-up guidance bulletins giving him relevant information helpful in achieving self-actualisation in his new environment.
Importance of Follow-up: Information obtained through follow-up techniques can be used for improving the curriculum, stimulating better teaching, increasing the value of the guidance services and establishing better college/university and community relationship.
9. Educational psychology as a subject implies :
(1) Integration of knowledge of psychology to education
(2) Educational knowledge
(3) Knowledge of education applied to psychology
(4) Knowledge of education applied to human behavior
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioural perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan.
10. In view of Piaget the stage of development from the age 7 to 12 years is called :
(1) Sensory motor
(3) Concrete operational
(4) Formal operational
The Piaget stages of development is a blueprint that describes the stages of normal intellectual development, from infancy through adulthood. This includes thought, judgment, and knowledge. The stages were named after psychologist and developmental biologist Jean Piaget, who recorded the intellectual development and abilities of infants, children, and teens.
Piaget's four stages of intellectual (or cognitive) development are:
• Sensorimotor. Birth through ages 18-24 months
• Preoperational. Toddlerhood (18-24 months) through early childhood (age 7)
• Concrete operational. Agęs 7 to 12 years.
• Formal operational. Adolescence through adulthood
11. Thorndike's Law of effect in learning anticipated which of the following paradigm ?
(1) Pavlovian conditioning
(2) Operant conditioning
(3) Contiguous conditioning
(4) Insight learning
Operant conditioning, sometimes called instrumental learning, was first extensively studied by Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949), who observed the behaviour of cats trying to escape from home-made puzzle boxes. Thorndike generalized this finding in his law of effect, which states that behaviours followed by satisfying consequences tend to be repeated and those that produce unpleasant consequences are less likely to be repeated. In short, some consequences strengthen behaviour and some consequences weaken behaviour. By plotting escape time against trial number Thorndike produced the first known animal learning curves through this procedure.
12. In Freud's psycho-analytic concept of personality which one of the following is indicative of psychic-energy?
(4) Conscious level of psyche
Freud proposed three structures of the psyche or personality:
• Id: The id is the unconscious reservoir of the libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes. It is a selfish, childish, pleasure-oriented part of the personality with no ability to delay gratification.
-Superego: The superego contains internalised societal and parental standards of “good” and “bad”, “right" and "wrong" behaviour. They include conscious appreciations of rules and regulations as well as those incorporated unconsciously.
• Ego: The ego acts as a moderator between the pleasure sought by the id and the morals of the superego, seeking compromises to pacify both. It can be viewed as the individual's “sense of time and place”.
13. Defence mechanisms are used to protect the person's :
(1) 'Ego' consciously
(2) 'Id' unconsciously
(3) 'Superego' unconsciously
(4) 'Ego' unconsciously
When anxiety becomes overwhelming, it is the ego's place to protect the person by employing defence mechanisms. Guilt, embarrassment and shame often accompany anxiety. In the first definitive book on defence mechanisms, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence (1936), Anna Freud introduced the concept of signal anxiety; she stated that it was "not directly a conflicted instinctual tension but a signal occurring in the ego of an anticipated instinctual tension".
The signalling function of anxiety is thus seen as a crucial one and biologically adapted to warn the organism of danger or a threat to its equilibrium. The anxiety is felt as an increase in bodily or mental tension and the signal that the organism receives in this way allows it the possibility of taking defensive action regarding the perceived danger. Defence mechanisms work by distorting the id impulses into acceptable forms, or by unconscious or conscious blockage of these impulses.
14. Who in the following list proposed the concept of the 'Anima' and the ‘Animus' in explaining the concept of personality ?
(4) Eric Fromm
The anima and animus, in Carl Jung's school of analytical psychology, are the two primary anthropomorphic archetypes of the unconscious mind, as opposed to both the theriomorphic and inferior function of the shadow archetypes, as well as the abstract symbol sets that formulate the archetype of the Self. The anima and animus are described by Jung as elements of his theory of the collective unconscious, a domain of the unconscious that transcends the personal psyche. In the unconscious of a man, this archetype finds expression as a feminine inner personality: anima; equivalently, in the unconscious of a woman it is expressed as a masculine inner personality: animus.
15. 'Wellness life style' depends on the person's :
(1) Affluence and adequacy
(2) Means and their availability
(3)Values and the attitudes
(4) Doing something to get something
Health and wellness are not merely the absence of disease and illness. A person's state of health, wellness, or illness depends on the individual's values, attitudes, personality, and lifestyle.
16.In Piaget's view which of the following stage of development is the highest stage in terms of cognitive development ?
(4) Old age
According to Piaget, adolescents may—but do not always-enter the stage of formal operations, which is the highest level of cognitive development in his theory. Adolescents in this stage have reached cognitive maturity, even if some rough edges remain. For many children in developed nations, the stage of formal operations can begin quite early-at about the time of puberty, 11 or 12 years of age. But some children reach this stage somewhat later, and some not at all. Piaget describes the accomplishments of the stage of formal operations in terms of the individual's increased ability to classify objects and ideas, engage in logical thought, and hypothesize, just as researchers make hypotheses in their investigations.
17. 'Object permanence is the characteristic of which age group in Piaget's research evidence of growth and development ?
(1) upto the age of 8-9 months
(2) between 2 to 7 years
(3) between 9 to 11 years
(4) between 11 to 14 years
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, includes four stages: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational. Sensorimotor Stage occurs from Birth - 2 years. During this stage children experience the world through their senses and actions such as touching, looking, etc. Once the child accomplishes the milestones of Object Permanence i.e., the knowledge that an object exists even when hidden from view and Stranger Anxiety they've successfully completed this stage and move to the next stage.
18.In the following list of learning theorists who borrowed the word 'cathexis' to call it a kind of learning ?
Tolman was an influential early learning theorist who introduced a number of new concepts and vocabulary to the field of learning psychology. Tolman identified at least six types of learning
1. Learning by cathexes - connecting or associating basic drives with desired goals with the end result of developing preferences for certain types of food drink, sex-objects, etc.
2. Equivalence beliefs - sub-goals leading to major ones acquire similar attractiveness as the end goals.
3. Field expectancies - Acquisitions of sen of gestalts (internal maps) enable the individual to route himself based on these internal maps.
4. Field cognition modes - learning is influenced by the ways that perceptions, memories, and inferences function.
5. Drive discrimination - learning to discriminate between competing or more refined drives.
6. Motor patterns- learning and refinement of sensory-motor skills.
19. In which conditioning paradigm of learning reinforcement follows rather than precedes a response ?
(1) Classical conditioning
(2) Operant conditioning
(3) Contiguous conditioning
(4) Backward conditioning
Operant conditioning is a learning process in which behaviour is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences. For example, a child may learn to open a box to get the candy inside, or learn to avoid touching a hot stove. Operant conditioning is a theory of learning that holds that behaviours are controlled by the consequences that follow them.
20. Which theory of transfer of learning suggests that it is the understanding developed by the learner which transfer from one situation to the other ?
(1) Theory of identity of elements
(2) Mental faculty theory
(3)Theory of generalization
(4) Gestalt theory
The theory of configuration is based on the Gestalt theory of learning. It holds that the transfer of training from one situation to another is the result of the application of certain principles of configuration. It means that the transfer of acquired patterns of response to a new situation depends upon the insight of the learner into the total situation to enable him to use those patterns. Transfer implies that what is learned in one situation can be shifted directly to another situation only when similarity (in content, method, or attitude) of the two situations is perceived by the learner.