Unit 2: History, Politics and Economics of Education (Part A)

Unit 2: History, Politics and Economics of Education (Part A)

“The destiny of India is now being shaped in her classrooms”- Education Commission, 1964-66. According to the National Council for Teacher Education Act, “Teacher education means programmes of education, research or training of persons for equipping them to teach at pre-primary, primary, secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and includes non-formal education, adult education and correspondence education through distance mode. Teacher Education system plays a crucial role in shaping as well as modifying the quality of school education. At present time the teaching profession demands teachers to be innovative in their attitudes, flexible in their approach. Teacher education programme needs some significant efforts towards ushering in innovation in the process of educating future teachers. It is an effort which has been modified by the vision of efficient scholars and dedicated academicians from the domain of education and it has been given a material shape by the team of dedicated individuals who have dreamt of transforming the realm of teacher education. Role of teacher is the single most important factor in assuring quality in the teaching –learning process. Teacher is the one who facilitates learners to realise their potentials, articulate their personal and context specific experiences in ways that are acceptable in the wider context of our nation.

Commissions after Post-Independence Period: 

In India teacher education has always been recognised as one of the most crucial means of social and national development. This view has been reflected by several commissions and committees after independence. The Government of India set up many commissions and committees time to time for addressing different issues of general education as well as teacher education. After independence efforts were made to tackle the emerging problem of access, quality and relevance of teacher education system in the country. The central institute of Education was established in Delhi in 1948 and the Government Training College at Allahabad was developed into the Central Pedagogical institute.

University Education Commission (1948-49): 

Just after independence, the Ministry of Education, Government of India set-up University Education Commission under the chairmanship of  Dr.S.Radhakrishnan in the year, 1948. The commission recommended that the courses must be flexible and adaptable to local circumstances. 

 To remodel the course and time given to school practice in assessing the student performance 

 To use schools for practical training 

 Courses on the theory of education to be flexible and adaptable to local circumstances. 

Secondary Education Commission: 

Secondary Education Commission was established under the chairmanship of Dr. A.L.Mudaliar. They recommended that there should be only two types of institutions for teacher training. 

 Training colleges should organise refresher courses, start intensive courses in special subjects, practical training in workshops. 

 Teacher trainees should receive training in one or more of various extra-curricular activities. 

 During the period of training all student teachers should be given suitable stipend by the state and no fees should be charged in training colleges 

 The training institutions should advocate methods and training that are practicable and realistic.

Establishment of NCERT (1961):


National Council of Educational Research and Training was established on 1961 for the development of school education. It also included teacher education. The recommendations of NCERT are as follows: 

 To revamp elementary and secondary teacher Education curriculum. 

 To reorganise student teaching and evaluation 

 To focus on continuing education of teachers through establishments of centres of continuing education 

 To provide a scheme of national awards to school teachers and teacher educators.

The Education Commission (1964-66): 

Prof. D.S. Kothari was the chairman of the education commission (1964-66) under whose name it was named as Kothari Commission. The commission studied various aspects of the Teacher education in details and observe that a sound programme of professional education of teachers is essential for quality improvement of education. 

 To frame the training course as to prepare the students for the immediate work of teaching 

 To introduce education as an independent discipline and an elective subject in courses for the first and second degrees. 

 To removing the existing isolation of teacher education from schools 

 To organise extension work as an essential function of a teacher training institution 

 To organise alumni association to bring old students and faculty to discuss and plan programme and curricula. 

 To establish a state Board of Teacher Education to be responsible for all functions related to teacher education at all levels and in all fields. 

 To improve the quality of teacher training institutions. 

 To select best and competent persons available for the faculty of training institutions 

 To organise special courses for graduates entering primary teaching 

 Correspondence courses and liberal concessions for study leave should be made available to unqualified teachers in primary schools to improve their qualifications. 

 Reorientation of subject knowledge of secondary teachers with competent university departments and with the arts and science colleges doing post-graduate work. 

 To maintain the standards of teacher education by establishing U.G.C at the National Level.  To make provision of funds in the centrally sponsored sector to assist State Governments to develop teacher education. 

 To improve the working and service conditions of teachers 

 To provide adequate facilities for professional advancements to all teachers. 

Indian Association of Teacher Education (IATE): 

IATE was established in the year 1965. The major recommendations of this association regarding teacher education were:

 Practice school – Every College of education should have one practice school attached to it 

 Correspondence course - Correspondence courses should be introduced for reducing the backlog of untrained teachers 

 Summer Institutes - Summer Institutes should be started to increase the number of trained teachers 

 Area Organisation - Area Organisation should be set up to integrate and supervise the training of teachers at all levels.

National Policy on Education (NPE), 1968: 

National Policy on Education (NPE), 1968 was established under the chairmanship of Shri Ganga Sharan Sinha. The National Policy on Education formulated the following suggestions regarding the status, emoluments and education of teachers: 

 The emoluments and other service conditions of the teachers should be adequate and satisfactory with regard to their qualifications. 

 Academic freedom of teachers to pursue and publish independent studies and researches and to speak and write about significant national and international issues should be protected. 

 Teacher education particularly in service education should receive due emphasis 

The National Council for Teacher Education, 1973: 

The National Council for Teacher Education was established to work as national advisory body for teacher education. The NCTE drafted a curriculum that envisaged the role of teacher as a leader inside and outside the classroom. 

 To improve the administration of teacher education 

 To make the curriculum relevant to the needs of children, the needs of society and the needs of the country. 

 To improve the evaluation procedures and introduce grading and semester system 

 To enrich the methodology by self-learning, problem-solving and practical work 

 To prepare stage-wise objectives of teacher education and give special emphasis on working with community. 

National Commission on Teachers (1983-85): 

Prof. D.P. Chattopadhyaya, was the chairman of National Commission on Teachers. The commission made some valuable suggestions for Teacher education: 

 A four-year training course after senior secondary leading to graduation and training is recommended. 

 To enlarge and improve the physical facilities of a four year integrated college.

 To extend the duration of one year B.Ed course by two summer months ensuring an academic session of 220 days with longer working hours 

 To select teacher on the basis of some factors like, good physique, linguistic ability and communication skills, general awareness of the world, a positive outlook on life and capacity of good human relations.

National Policy on Teacher Education (1986):


National Policy on Teacher Education was adopted by parliament in May 1986. It recommended the system of teacher education to be overhauled. 

 To upgrade selected secondary teacher training institutions. 

 Emphasizing inseparability of pre-service and in-service components of teacher education 

 To establish District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) with the capability to organise pre-service and in-service courses for elementary school teachers and for the personnel working in non-formal and adult education sectors 

 To establish, the National Council for Teacher Education(NCTE) at the national level which will have the power to accredit institutions of teacher education, provide guidance regarding curriculum and methods 

 Upgrading of selected teacher training colleges to complement the work of SCERTs Acharya Ram Murti Committee was appointed by the Government of India in 1990 reviewed the National Policy on education (1986). The major suggestions regarding teacher education were:

 i) The first degree course on teacher education should not be given on correspondence mode. 

ii) More institutions should be encouraged to introduce four years Integrated courses in the pattern of Regional Colleges of Education 

iii) The practice of using teacher training Institutions as dumping ground for unwanted staff should be stopped.....FOR MORE CLICK HERE