Unit 7 Pedagogy, Andragogy and Assessment (Part A)
The word pedagogy comes from the Greek word paidagogeo, [Latin paedagogia] in which paidos means "child" and agogos means "lead"; so it literally means "to lead the child“ or “to guide the child”
In Ancient Greece, a slave –paidagogos- was assigned to a wealthy master’s son, to take him to school, supervise him while in school, and carrying his equipment such as musical instruments, etc.
Pedagogy refers to educational schools of thought or philosophies regarding how people learn and how teachers should assist in that learning.
Pedagogy is the science and art of education.
It is the study of being a teacher.
The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction.
According to Webster’s dictionary pedagogy means “the art or profession of teaching”.
In terms of teacher training, it means the art or science of being a teacher, which includes the style and strategies of the teacher’s instruction.
The word pedagogue means, teacher, schoolmaster, educator, educationalist, etc.
Especially one who is strict, stiff or old-fashioned, who stands in the front of the room and lectures for the entire class period.
Pedagogic Analysis means the logical and systematical breaking up of the curriculum from the point of view of a pedagogue for the purpose of its effective transaction.
Objectives of Pedagogic Analysis:
To analyze the curricular content into meaningful components
To anticipate comprehensive instructional objectives for each component
To identify the pre-requisites in the curricular area
To design appropriate objective based learning experiences for different stages and contents
To anticipate strategies for continuous and comprehensive evaluation
Advantages of Pedagogic Analysis:
Teacher can take steps to motivate students
It helps the teacher to adopt learner centered instruction
It makes the instructional programme more systematic and content appropriate
It helps the teacher to design a plan of action to for immediate feedback, diagnosis and remediation
It helps the teacher to implement proper evaluation procedure
PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED
Pedagogy of the Oppressed is the most widely known of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire's works published in 1968. In this book he proposes a pedagogy with a new relationship between teacher, student, and society.
This book is a critique of a certain educational method known as the 'banking' method” and is considered one of the foundational texts of Critical Pedagogy
What is Critical Pedagogy?
Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach which attempts to help students question and challenge domination, and the beliefs and practices that dominate them. It tries to help students become critically conscious.
Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education described by Henry Giroux and other scholars as an "educational movement, guided by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive action.
Critical Pedagogy is a form of education in which students are encouraged to question dominant or common notions of meaning and form their own understanding of what they learn.
One of the central ideas of this teaching method is that students are able to build their own meaning when learning and teachers should facilitate that process rather than “force” meaning upon the students.
Problem-posing education is a term coined by Paulo Freire in his book Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
It to a method of teaching that emphasizes critical thinking for the purpose of liberation.
Freire used problem-posing as the alternative to Banking Education, which is the traditional model of education.
Banking Education is a form learning or teaching where the students act as banks, and teachers, as one who make deposits. Instead of money it is information is being deposited into students. The teacher passes his information through lectures, homework, etc. and lists of items to be memorized to the students. The information is expected to be stored in the brain until he is asked to be recalled it , such as on an exam.
This concept of education is not beneficial to the growth of true knowledge where one discovers on his own ideas with others. The banking system dehumanizes students and makes them more like robots; problem posing education is a way to rectify problems of the traditional teaching system.
Praxis is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, practiced, embodied, or realised. It may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practicing ideas. It has meaning in the political, educational, and spiritual realms. This has been a recurrent topic in the field of philosophy, discussed in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, Karl Marx, Paulo Freire, etc.
Hegemony is the complete cultural domination of one group by another. In education, this occurs when students from one culture are taught that assimilation into their new culture is the primary goal.
It is also referred as the maintenance of domination through consensual social practices, social forms, and social structures produced in specific sites such as schools, mass media, the political system, and the family.
Components and Operations Involved in the task of Pedagogical Analysis
Looking in the way, by the term pedagogical Analysis of any subject content we certainly aim to carry out the task of the analyzing the prescribed course material or a particular unit/sub-unit/topic/single concept of the subject being taught to a particular class by systematically executing the following four operations in a close interactive style.
A. Content analysis of the unit/topic/single concept being taught by the teacher in the subject. B. Setting of the teaching or instructional objectives of the content material of the topic in hand by writing them in specific behavioral terms.
C. Suggesting methods, techniques, teachinglearning activities, aids and equipments helpful for the teaching learning of the topic in hand quite in tune with the realization of the set instructional objectives.
D. Suggesting appropriate evaluation devices in the form of oral, written or practical activities and test questions etc for evaluating the outcomes of the teaching learning process carried in relation to the teaching of the topic in hand.
In the light of the relationship and interdependence existing among the above-mentioned four components of the pedagogical analysis, operations of the content material in the subject may then be properly illustrated through the following diagram. Figure 1.
In this way when a teacher is asked to perform pedagogical analysis of the contents of a subject/unit or topic to be taught in the class he has to go through the cycle of the above mentioned four components namely
(i) content analysis
(ii) objective formulation
(iii) selection of the teaching method and material and
(iv) selection of the evaluation devices.
Steps of Pedagogical analysis
Step-1 : Divided the contents of the selected unit into suitable sub-units and arrange the selected sub-units in to a number of required periods.
Step-2 : Briefly write the essence of the content of the selected sub-unit.
Step-3: Write appropriate previous knowledge required for the sub-unit.
Step-4: Write appropriate instructional objectives to be selected for the sub-unit.
Step-5: Select appropriate teaching strategies for the sub-unit according to the following instructions:
I. Write the name of the methods applied.
II. Mention the teaching aids required.
III. Briefly illustrate the necessary demonstration and/or experimentation required.
IV. Mention the necessary board work required.
V. Write probing questions related to the sub-unit and provide appropriate answers for them. VI. Prepare a work sheet for the sub unit.
Step-6 : Give suitable examples/illustration/analogies for the sub-unit.
Step-7 : Prepare a table of specification for the sub-unit.
Write at least six criterion referenced test-items each with specific criteria for the sub-unit.
Needs of Pedagogical Analysis Pedagogy i.e. the science of teaching is a master plan that includes a details of what is to be done by a teacher, the instructional strategies, instructional equipments and the cardinal objectives of instruction. Depending on what can actually learn and what are the expectation sets for learners of a particular stage of development, specific instructional objectives are determined and appropriate set of activities provided. The teacher decides instructional objectives, equipments and strategies with every aspect of learning conditions to be created. Favorable conditions for positive learning cell for knowledge of various factors operating in different conditions. Pedagogical analysis is appropriate objectives and strategies in various instructional situations and assess the levels the level of actual learning at the end.
A comprehensive vision of required tasks, strategies for realization of specific goals facilitates effective teaching. So, pedagogical analysis offers enormous potential for improving the delivery of information in all form of education. It involves various logical steps to arrive at logical inference. It also helps the students to understand concepts, principles or phenomena. Again, the learning environment created accordingly, enables to-
1. Relate individual fragment of knowledge to real experience in life and work.
2. Develop skills and relate facts as a part of a larger organized completely.
Realization of specific goals, facilitated by a detailed planning result in effective teaching.
How pedagogy serves effective Teaching
In this way in the light of what has been said already above, the science of teaching pedagogy is found to serve the following two main objectives in the schedule task of a teacher’s teaching.
(i) Teaching should be carried out as smoothly as possible and
(ii) It should result into the maximum output in terms of the expected better teaching outcomes.
What is suggested by the science of teaching on pedagogy for the realization of its above said two main objectives now carries a wide significance at this stage. Let us briefly describe it. A teacher has before him content material and learning experiences related to that subject in a particular class. In this way, his success in his teaching task depends upon the extent to which he is successful in realization of the teaching instructional objectives. He can go on smoothly in his teaching task only if he follows suitable method, devices, techniques and aid materials etc. for providing the fruits of his teaching to his students. How properly is he proceeding in his teaching task and how will he is trying to achieve the set teaching objectives, that now needs the help of a continuous system of testing and measurement known as evaluations of teaching outcomes. The results of such evaluations provides an appropriate feedback to the teacher for bringing desirable modification in his methods and materials of teaching including justifying the need of bringing alteration in setting of instructional objectives. In this way science of teaching or pedagogy advocates a total mutual relationships and interdependence among the following four pillars of the teaching learning process for attaining best possible results in the task of teaching i.e. effective teaching.
Science of teaching or pedagogy in this way lays down the above-mentioned four essentials pillars along with their inherent mutual relationship and interdependence for being considered essential in the realization of the desired success in a teaching task. It is the message and spirit of the science of teaching or pedagogy that needs to properly carry out in any scheme of the analysis of the content material to a subject and then only then such analysis of the content material may be termed as pedagogical analysis of the given content material. In the light of what has been said above, a teacher of may proceed in the way given below for analyzing the contents of the syllabus of his subject as well as the contents of the topic to be taught in the classroom by preserving the spirit or massage conveyed by the science of teaching or pedagogy.
I. The contents of the subject should be got analyzed properly into major and minor sections/units/concepts etc and sequenced as well as organized as methodically as possible.
II. Only a desirable amount of the content material enabled to be covered properly in the scheduled subject period should be taken into hand at a time in the shape of a topic to be taught by the teacher for his scheduled classroom.
III. The topic in the hand should also be analyzed properly in the form of major and minor concepts/single concepts etc.
IV. The teacher should now clearly lay down the teaching or instructional objectives related to the topic in hand by writing them into the specific behavioral terms.
V. How can these stipulated instructional objectives be achieved properly by teaching contents of the topic in hand should now be made a point of consideration for proceeding further on the path of pedagogical analysis.
Definitely, in this situation it needs the better employment of men material resources by the teacher. Science of teaching (pedagogy) can help him here to think about the best possible methods, strategies, tactics and techniques to be employed, aid material and likewise sources to be utilized for the teaching of the topic in hand in the existing teaching learning situations. All of the possible things and factors helpful in the teaching of the topic in view of the proper realization of the set teaching objectives then should be properly analyzed and classified in any of the scheme of pedagogical analysis of the topic or contents of subject.
VI. In the last, there arises a need of exercising proper control over the different components of the teaching-learning process. Such control can only be possible through a well-organized scheme of evaluation well in tune with the contents of the topic in hand, stipulated teaching objectives and methods and material employed for teaching. For this purpose, an appropriate evaluation scheme should also find a place in any scheme of pedagogical analysis of the topic or content material of the subject mathematics.
Levels of teaching
We all know that teaching is a purposeful activity. Through teaching the teacher brings a desirable change in the learner. Both the concepts teaching and learning are interrelated to each other. Development of all-round personality of the learner is the final goal of teaching and learning. During teaching an interaction takes place between an experienced person (teacher) and an inexperienced person (student). Here the main aim is to bring change in the behavior of the student.
Teachers teach students at three levels. They have to keep in mind about the developmental stage of the learners so that desired educational objectives can be achieved. These three levels are
⦁ Memory level: Thoughtless teaching
⦁ Understanding level: Thoughtful teaching
⦁ Reflective level: Upper thoughtful level
⦁ Memory Model of Teaching
This level of teaching model was originated by Herbert .
It consist of five steps.
1. Focus-Here the focus is to train mental discipline, acquiring of factual informations, retaing the acquired information for a longer period and recall or produce the retained material as when required
2. Syntax-It has five steps and called as par diagram of teaching.
iii. Comparison and Abstraction
Preparation: Here the teacher enter into the class and look at the classroom arrangement and readiness of the students for learning.
Presentation: At this stage teacher presents the new knowledge before the students. The teacher tries to derive most of the information from the pupils so that a bond may be established between the previous and new knowledge. The teacher does not deviate from the subject matter slightly. At this stage the teacher gives such knowledge to students that can be evaluated.
Comparison and association: Here the relationship is established between different facts, events and experiments by comparisons which clarify the learning material in the minds of pupils.
Generalization: After explaining the basic lesson, the opportunities to think in this lesson. Teacher teaches how to develop new rules and principles on the given facts and information, ice obtained knowledge is generalized situations.
Application: this is the last stage where learnt knowledge is applied in real life situations.
This makes the knowledge permanent and the laws can be verified.
2. Social System
This model consists of authoritarian behavior of the teachers. Here teachers have the authority of selection of content, methodology and evaluation. Learners are the passive listener. They have memories and reproduce the content. The form of motivation is purely extrinsic.
3. Support System
This model requires some supportive services to make the teaching more effective. The subject matter to be present will be more structured, define and sufficient use of audiovisual materials are also be used. The content should be presented in specifies and presented in an observable set up. Evaluation System The evaluation will be basically oral or verbal in......FOR MORE CLICK HERE