Unit 10 Inclusive Education (Part A)
CONCEPT OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
Every child has a fundamental right to education, and must be given the opportunity to read and write. Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs and that should be respected. When we go in the history of education of children with special needs, there were no provisions of education. With time policies were formulated and then integrated education started. In integrated education children were just registered in normal schools. There were no provision of special educators and aids and appliances required by them were not available. There were provision of resource room in integrated system but they either did not exist or existed without facilities available in them. Children with special needs were just going in and out in schools. Term integration was used to denote the physical placement of students with disabilities into mainstream schools, without any change in the schools.
In Inclusive education system school changes itself according to the special child. Special teacher according to the disability of the child should be there. Aids and appliances as per the needs of a child should be there. The child should spend maximum time in the general classroom. Time spent in resource room should be minimum. For example if a child is low vision, large print books should be provided and computer should be provided in the classroom. Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all. This ensures an effective education to the majority of children and improved efficiency, and ultimately cost effectiveness of the entire education system.
Inclusion means providing all children regardless of race, language, class, geographical location and disability equitable and effective education that responds to their needs as learners. The concept of inclusion facilitates heterogeneous grouping and zero rejection
The difference between the concept of integration and inclusion is that while the former expects that the child is individual difficulty are the root cause of any difficulties in the school, the latter challenges the present day educational system as promoting exclusion. Therefore inclusion actually challenges us to examine the barriers within the educational system and look for ways in which to promote participation and positive learning outcomes of all learners.
SPECIAL EDUCATION VS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION:
The term “Special Need Education” (SNE) has come into use as a replacement for the term “Special Education”, as the older one was mainly understood to refer the education of all those children and youth whose needs arise from disabilities or learning difficulties. The Statement affirms: “those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them within child centered pedagogy capable of meeting these needs”.
Moreover, the concept of “Special Need Education” extends beyond those who may be included in handicapped categories to cover those who are failing in school for a wide variety of other reasons that are known to be likely to impede a child’s optimal progress. Whether or not this more broadly defined group of children are in need of additional support depends on the extent to which school needs to support their curriculum, teaching and/or to provide additional human or material resources so as to stimulate efficient and effective learning for these pupils. (International Standard Classification of Education ISCED, 1997)
But marginalization and exclusion of these pupils result in the growth of inferiority complexes among them and their parents/guardians. This leads the vision of “Inclusive Education”. Inclusive Education aims at integrated development of children with special needs and normal children through mainstream schooling. To develop curriculum for special education and its inclusion in general teacher preparation programmes, Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) made a historic collaboration with National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) on January 19, 2005.
The concept of integrated education in India has emerged during the mid 1950s. It is based on the medical model of disability and it emphasizes placement of children with disabilities in mainstream schools. The major thrust is on attendance.
Till 1990s ninety percent of India’s estimated 40 million children in the age group- four-sixteen years with physical and mental disabilities are being excluded from mainstream education. The overwhelming majority of them are vagabonds not out of volition but because of callous school managements and over-anxious parents of abled children in a travesty of humanity and social justice. They have consistently discouraged children with disabilities from entering the nation’s classrooms. Social justice and equity which are dominant sentiments of the Constitution of India demand that India’s 35 million physically challenged, if not the 5 million mentally challenged, children should be given preferential access into primary and secondary schools. Fewer than five percent of children who have a disability are in schools. Remaining nine-tenths of them are excluded.
Against this backdrop of continuous neglect, there is an urgent need to find ways for developing potential of this large proportion of challenged children.
Historical Background Of Inclusive Education
History is said to be a chronological description of the persons , institution and societies in terms of their existences and major events of their lives since their inception till date. However, a history of special education and history of exceptionality ,as winzer (1993) observers , are not the same, one deals with educational and institutional arrangements first formally established in the 18th century, the other with the people who have been present in society since the beginnings. Let us have a brief discussion
1. The era of exclusion -extermination and abandonment:- the earlier history of treating disability /exceptionality is almost dominated by the philosophy of exclusion i.e. totally excluding and exterminating the disabled from the main stream of the general population through a quit horrified majors like killing, mutilating, burning exiling, abandoning or making them vanish from the scene some how or the other. Such practices where in vogue through out the globe in almost all the ancient civilization of the world
2. The era of acceptance as a subject amusement and use:- disabled children , who happened to survive these draconian measures on one or the other accounts like undetected conditions, post natal deformities or humanistic tendencies grown in some societies against the brutal measures of infanticide and started in an era of accepting their existences , not as a normal human being, but as a subject of amusement and means of serving one or the other ulterior motives of the society.
3. The era of prohibition, legal discrimination and witchcraft:- The rise of church as a religious institution in the medieval period led to play a new tone in the treatment of attitudes towards disabilities the bible became a code of ethics in collaboration with churches the rulers in the European society established quite discriminatory legal laws depriving the disabled people of their rights of inheritance and forbidding there to testify in a course of justice, making a deed, contract note or will.
4. The era of sympathy and asylum -institutionalization:- with the advent of the second phase Christian era, attempts where in vogue to stop the abuse of the disabled children. disabled children where now regarded those poor souls who have been denied opportunities to lead a normal life on account of the annoyance of the Almighty for committing sins. They were now a subject of sympathy rather than of suspension or amusement.
5. The era of isolated setting(special schools):-the renaissance movement originated from Italy in 16th century & then spread throughout the western world in 17th century brought a new era of hope to the disabled population. The spirit of renaissance gave birth to most of the genuine efforts in the direction of special education for the disabled population. In this era, separate schools were established like special schools or special education for deaf, special education for blind, special education for mentally retarded etc.
6. The era of segregated settings special classes:-with the advent of 20th century, these began a new era in the history of the education for exceptional/disabled in the shape of moving from the isolated setting of special schools to the segregated settings of the special classes within the normal regular schools. It was the result of a new wave of humanism, coupled with the increasing demands of equality of educational opportunities to all children irrespective of their disabilities in the regular schools run by the government or founded or founded and supported by the public money.
7. The era of inclusive setting regular classes:-the era of inclusive settings i.e. educating all types of children whether exceptional or normal together in the regular classes of the mainstream schools, represents the modern era and latest development in the history of special/disability education. Apart from dissatisfaction with continuation of special classes in the regular schools, a new wave of change in the name of upholding human right providing equity & equality of educational opportunities to all children , gave birth to a strong build up in favor of inclusion i.e. placement of exceptional children in regular classroom without discrimination of any sort.
Principles Of Inclusion & Necessary Resources:
Inclusive education is an integral part of general system of education, hence the principles applicable to general /traditional form of education are equally important in inclusive education with only difference in their methodological difference because of varying characteristics and needs of various types of disabled persons. The principles of inclusive education are as:
1) Teaching all students:- Educators should take several different approaches to teaching the same material so that information becomes more interesting and tangible to a greater number of students.
2) Exploring multiple identities:-students who are proud of themselves and excited by the world around them will be more compassionate and understanding people the same is true for educators.
3) There should be well designed individualized education programs.
4) Time for teachers to plan, meet, create and evaluate the students together.
5) Reduced class size based on the severely of the student needs
6) Sufficient funding so that schools will be able to develop programs for students based on student need instead of the availability of funding
7) Collaboration between parents or guardians teachers or para educators, specialist, administration and outside agencies.
If inclusion is to be successful, the following parameters are to be taken care of:
I. Readiness of the general education system to accept responsibility for education of children with disabilities
II. Encouragement provided by the community for including children with disabilities in local schools
III. Readiness of parents of children with disabilities to admit children in local schools
IV. Basic knowledge of general classroom teachers about the education of children with disabilities
V. Admission of all types of disabled children in local schools irrespective of the extent of disability
Admission of all types of disabled children in local schools irrespective of the extent of disability
VI. Enrollment rate of children with disabilities at least on par with that of non disabled children
Inclusion is a term which expresses commitment to educate each child to the maximum extent appropriate in the school & the classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) &requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other students). Proponents of inclusion generally favour newer forms of education service delivery.
Inclusion describes much more than the acceptance of children with disabilities/exceptionalities in the mainstream. Inclusive education programmes do not forms on the accommodation of these children into a general education setting, but are focused on the reconstructing of schools to accept &provide for the needs of all students. In other words, no discrimination is made among the exceptional & non exceptional children . all the children in all shades of their exceptionality are welcome by making necessary arrangements & accommodations for their education in the same school &classes along with their non disabled peers.
Michael F.Giangreco(1997): “Inclusive education is a set of values, principles & practices that seeks more effective & meaningful education for all students, regardless of whether they have exceptionality labels or not”.
Stainback &stainback(1992): “Inclusive school or set up may be defined as a place where everyone belongs, is accepted, supports &is supported by his/her peers &other members of the school community in the course of having his/her educational needs met”.
NATURE OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION:
1. It works on the principle of inclusion i,e. including all. So all the students are included in this system of education in their local schools.
2. Here, the general education classroom in the neighbourhood school is regarded as the first placement option for any exceptional child.
3. Exceptional children may get unique opportunities to get education with peers in the same age groups available to those without exceptionality.
4. It aims to integrate &include the education of the disabled children with the general system of education so that education of the disabled &nondisabled may proceed side by side by fulfilling the needs & objectives of both the groups without any differentiation.
5. It tries to bring desired educational opportunities at the doorstep of exceptional children rather than expecting from them to none &try for themselves to avail these opportunities.
6. An inclusion provides a foundation for exceptional in ways that are not possible in special schools & classes.
TYPES OR MODELS OF INCLUSION:
There are two models of inclusion:-
Model of full inclusion:
It is the concept of inclusive or integrated mainstreaming education demands the education of the exceptional children in the regular classes &schools in the same way & to the same degree as received by the non disabled children. It is known as full term inclusion. It includes all students, regardless of their exceptionality /disability or normality conditions in a regular classroom/programmes of the school on fulltime as practiced by a school in its regular time table.
Model of partial inclusion:-
In practical sense, however, such type of full inclusion is neither feasible nor proves more productive from the viewpoints of both the disabled and nondisabled children. Thereby, attempts are made to seek such integration that may work well in prevailing situation and needs of the disabled as well as non disabled children. It is named as partially inclusive education. It may vary in styles & functioning as:-
Disabled attend regular classes along with their normal peers. They get required support from the teacher, special educator expert and itinerant teacher within the classroom set up without causing disturbance to the education of the non disabled.
Disabled students attend special schools meant for their specific special education but gets opportunities for the academic, social &societal interaction with the non disabled in normal schools setup.
Integration is a concept emerged as a philosophy in antitheses of segregation. It called halt to the system of providing education to the children in segregating settings of special schools & advocated to make provision for their education in the regular schools. In this way , historically, When disabled children were primarily educated in separate special schools, integration was term carried for describing their successful placement into regular schools. In this way instead of subjecting the disabled students to a sort of segregation by putting them in separate special schools for their education, their integration(association) with the non disabled population of their peers was targeted to achieve through this new philosophy of integration. It can thus be safely called a proper step in putting the disabled children into the mainstream i.e. the place and the opportunities of getting education and training with the population of the non disabled peers in the regular schools…….FOR MORE CLICK HERE