Unit 8 Technology in for Education (Part A)
Globalization and technological change processes that have accelerated in tandem over the past years have created a new global economy ―Powered by technology, fueled by information and driven by knowledge.
The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications for the nature and purpose of educational institutions. As you know the half life of information continues to shrink and access to information continues to grow exponentially, schools can not remain mere venues for the transmission of a prescribed set of information from teacher to student over a fixed period of time. Rather Schools must promote
―Learning to Learn i.e. the acquisition of knowledge and skills that make possible continuous learning over the lifetime.
―The illiterate of the 21st century according to futurist Alvin Toffler,
―Will not be those who can not read and write, but those who can not learn,
Unlearn & relearn Concerns over educational relevance and quality co-exist with the imperative of expending educational opportunities to those made most vulnerable by globalization - developing countries in general, low income groups, girls and women and low skilled workers in particulars. Global changes also put pressure on all groups to constantly acquire and apply new skills.
The international Labour organization defines the requirements for education and training in the new global economy simply as a
―Basic education for all,
―Core work skills for all and
―Lifelong learning for all.
In this connection, Information and communication technologies (ICTS) which include radio and television, and the Internet - have been touted as potentially and powerful enabling tools for educational change and reform. When used appropriately, different ICTS are said to help expand access to education, Strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life.
However, the effective integration of ICTS into the educational system is a complex, multifaceted process that involves not just technology, indeed, given enough initial capital, getting the technology is the easiest part - but also curriculum and pedagogy, Institutional readiness, teacher competencies and long term financing, among others.
In this module we will get an overall idea about the concept of ICTS. We will also discuss the need & significance of ICTS in Education with specific reference to historical perspective and emerging trends.
CONCEPT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY :
Today‘s world is a world of information explosion. This information explosion is taking place in such a fast speed that even a literate person is feeling as if he or she is illiterate being not able to cope up with such an information explosion. Here the question arises how is one to cope up with it? The answer is, information technology (IT) that can help in coping with the information explosion. So, we can say that
―Information Technology is nothing but coping up with explosion of Information.
Information technology (IT) is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro-electronics - based combination of computing and telecommunication.
The term in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Bussiness Review, in which authors Leavitt and whisler commented that ―the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology.
It spans a wide variety of areas that include but are not limited to things such as processes, computer software, computer hardware, Programming Languages and data constructs. In short, anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the domains space known as Information Technology.
Meaning of Information Technology (IT) :
Information Technology consists of two words Information and Technology. If you know the two words you can understand the word information technology together.
―Information refers to ―any communication or representation of knowledge such as facts, data or opinions in any medium or for, including textual, numerical, graphic Cartographic, narrative or audiovisual forms.
―Technology is the practical form of scientific knowledge or the science of application of knowledge to practical.
―Information Technology is any equipment or interconnected system or sub system of equipments that is used in the acquisition, storage manipulation, management transmission or reception of data or information.
Definition of Information Technology:
―Information Technology is a scientific, technological and engineering discipline and management technique used in handing the information, it‘s application and association with social, economical and cultural matters. - UNSECO
―Information technology is a systemic study of artefacts that can be used to give form to facts in order to provide meaning for decision making, and artefacts that can be used for organization, processing, communication and application of information - Darnton and Giacoletto
From the above discussion we can conclude that information technology refers to the information processing of the software application on operating systems or hardware applications that includes computers, videos, telephones and related equipments of telecommunications, tapes, CDs etc.
Characteristics of Information Technology :
Information Technology has the following Characteristics :
* Acquistion, Storage, manipulation, management, transmission or reception of data or information.
* Real time access to information.
* Easy availability of updated data
* Connecting Geographically dispersed regions
* Wider range of communication media.
Concept of Communication Technology
Communication Technology is also comprised of two words like
―Communication & Technology.
We have already discussed that technology is the science of the application of knowledge to practical purposes. You also know that information means any communication or representation of knowledge in any form. Now we will know what communication is?
―Communication is an integral part of human existence. It is communication that decides the very identity of human beings Modern society is turning into an information society and communication is the exchange of information. It is the process & transferring information form a Sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communication information is understood by both sender and receiver.
―Communication Technology implies the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to exchange information verbally or non verbally. It is processing of information interms of accessing information, decoding information and sending it via a medium and changer to the receivers. Medium or channel can be written or oral or gesture form of information through speech, action or any electronic machine.
―Communication Technology is the electronic systems used for communication between individuals or groups. It facilitates communication between individuals or groups. Who are not physically present at the same location. Systems such as telephone, telex, Fax, radio, T.V. and Video are included, as well as more recent computer based technologies, including electronic data interchange and e-mail.
In short, communication technolgoy is the activity of designing and constructing and maintaining communication systems.
Concept of Instructional Technology
J. K. Galbriath in his book a the new Industrial state has given two main characteristics of every technology.
They are: Systematic application of scientific knowledge to the practical tasks and the division of the practical tasks into sections and Subsections.
Any Subject who meets these two norms of the characteristics is called instructional Technology. Instructional technology, today is widely accepted as the application of systems approach in the systemic design of a learning system and as a method or approach combined with the appropriate and necessary media and material to bring about improvement in teaching - learning - evaluation process.
Instructional Technology is neither technology in education nor technology of education but both and all pervasive which pervades the whole teaching learning or engineering put it should be taken as a sum total of all such aspects, which go a long way in shaping the personality of the learner in a meaningful context.
Definition of Instructional Technology :
Instructional technology is just what it sounds like, using computers, CD Roms, interactive media, modems, satellites, teleconferencing and other technological means to support learning.
Instructional technology has several different aspects. It includes the following.
The process of designing instruction.
The application of learning theories and styles to designing instruction the selection of materials and tools to design and implement a design.
The evaluation of designs.
The effective use of team work and the use of technology in support of the development and delivery of instruction.
According to the Association for Educational Communications and Technoogy (AECT)
―Instructional Technology is often referred to as a part of educational technology but the use of these terms has changed over the years. While instructional Technology covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human capabilities
Nature of Instructional Techonology :
It‘s basis is science. It studies the effect of science and technology upon education. It is a contiuous, dynamic, progressive & effect producing method. It developes new concepts like programmed learning, microteching, Simulated teaching, video tape, projector and computer etc. It accepts school as a system. It can not solve each an every problem of education. It can be used succesfully in teaching and instructional system only. It can not replace the teacher
Characteristics of Instructional Technology :
It is helpful in achieving cognitive objectives. It can meet the shortage of effective teachers With it‘s help, the purpose can learn according to his needs and speed. It can control the individual differences. Analysis of contents in depth is carried out in this technology.
CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Meaning of "Educational Technology"
Words are of little interest in themselves but they do indicate changes in thinking. Once the climate of opinion is right, one may arrive at the word "Educational Technology" by different routes. One route starts from audio-visual aids! At first sight, it would appear that teaching machines could go under this heading; but those who work with teaching machines emphasise the importance of programmes rather than machinery. Hence the heading has to become audio-visual aids and programmed instruction, an odd pairing since some forms of programmed instructions use only the printed page. The new term "educational technology" suggests itself and it may be used to refer to a little beyond the use of equipments and techniques that are associated with equipments. On the other route, starting from programmed instruction, a wider conception of educational technology tends to be reached. It is difficult to keep programmed instruction within narrow bounds. Programmed instruction begins to look as though it is a part of something larger and this is educational or instructional technology. Programmed instruction emphasises that the aims of teaching should be analysed, the methods of accomplishing them made explicit and the effects assessed as precisely as possible. These basic ideas are applicable to the systems of instruction that do not necessarily include the use of teaching machines.
The term "technology", as Ofiesh (1964) observes, implies the application of science to art. When we apply the science of learning and communication to teaching, we evolve a technology, i.e., the technology of instruction. In modern education, we can witness the impact of two forces; one, of physical sciences and electronics and the other, of behavioural sciences, operating on the process of instruction. Both these forces have contributed to the evolution and growth of educational technology. Following Fig. makes the concept clear.
The interaction of physical sciences with education provides us with traditional aids, tools and hardwares such as paper, ink, books, radios, lin-guaphones, films, etc. and more sophisticated modern hardware like electronic computers, space satellites, language laboratories etc.......FOR MORE CLICK HERE