Unit 9 Educational Management, Administration and Leadership (Part A)
Educational Management and Administration
(ia) What is Management?
Etymology: The verb 'manage' comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle, especially tools), which derives from the Latin word means (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. Management in business and organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.
Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization or initiative to accomplish a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management is also an academic discipline, a social science whose object of study is the social organization.
Another way people talk of management is to describe it as an art, a science, an organisation, a person, a discipline, or a process. Let us consider each of these in turn.
Management as an art
As an art, management is about carrying out organisational functions and tasks through people. This art involves the application of techniques in:
• human and public relations
• the delegation of an authority: assigning and sharing responsibilities and duties.
• communication: including decision-making and problem-solving.
• managing change.
Management as a science
Management here is concerned with establishing a philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes and practices which can be applied in various situations, including schools.
Management as an organisation
As an organisation, management is about creating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission (or goals), objectives, targets, functions and tasks. For example, social and welfare organisations in government management can refer to education and health services, whilst public security management services could refer to the police and military.
Management as a person
Managements may be seen as a person or a group of people. For example, a teacher could say 'The school management has changed the timetable in the middle of the term'. This could be referring to the head alone, or to all the senior staff, or it could refer to the members of the board of governors or school committee. In schools with several promoted staff a 'senior management team' might be formed in much the same way as a government has a cabinet of ministers.
Management as a discipline
In this sense, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. Knowledge, skills and attitudes in management can be acquired through learning, from experience and from certified courses. Management is a collection of processes, including such things as decision-making, problem solving and action-planning. These processes involve the management of resources including human, material, financial and time. These processes are also known as the functions of managers. Management may be briefly described according to its,
Management operates through five basic functions:
planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling.
Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future and generating plans for action.
Organizing: Making sure the human and nonhuman resources are put into place
Coordinating: Creating a structure through which an organization's goals can be accomplished.
Commanding: Determining what must be done in a situation and getting people to do it.
Controlling: Checking progress against plans.
Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees
Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information
Decisional: roles that require decision-making Skills Developed
Political: used to build a power base and establish connections
Conceptual: used to analyze complex situations.
Interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate
Diagnostic: ability to visualize most appropriate response to a situation
Leadership: ability to lead and provide guidance to a specific group
Technical: Expertise in one's particular functional area.
( b) What is Educational Management?
While Education is the provision of a series of learning experiences to students in order to impart knowledge, values, attitudes and skills with the ultimate aim of making them productive members of society, Educational Management is the process of planning, organising, directing and controlling the activities of an institution by utilising human and material resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish functions of teaching, extension work and research
Nature and Scope:
The National Policies on Education seek to bring about a social, economic and cultural development in society by focusing on human resource development through education. Education, therefore, must have more relevant curricula, be dynamic, and empower students to bring about desirable social changes while preserving the desirable aspects of our existing culture.
The national developmental goals require the professional management of education to bring about the effective and efficient functioning of educational institutions. The scope of Educational Management is wide and includes the history and theories of management science, roles and responsibilities of an educational manager along with the requisite managerial skills.
Educational Management focuses on:
the study of theories of management science which define and describe the roles and responsibilities of the educational manager and the development of managerial skills. the study of educational planning at macro levels, its goals, principles, approaches and processes and on institutional planning and educational administration at the micro level. decision making, problem solving, communication, information management and effective team building. Planning of curricular and co-curricular activities, curriculum and academic calendar Maintenance of school records, evaluation of students‟ achievement Effective allocation of financial resources and the planning of the budgets of institutions.
Educational Management aims at:
Achieving an institution’ objectives
Improving the processes of planning, organising and implementing within the institution Creating, enhancing and maintaining a positive public image of the institution. Optimal utilisation of human resources (administrators, non-teaching staff, teaching staff and students) Enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of infrastructure Enabling job satisfaction Creating and maintaining a congenial and cohesive atmosphere Managing interpersonal conflicts, stress Improving interpersonal communication. Building a relationship with the community.
The functions of Educational
Management are largely based on Henry Fayol‟s 14 Principles of Management, namely, Division of work
Unity of command
Unity of direction
Subordination of individual interests
Material and social order
Esprit de corps
These functions can be encapsulated into the following 5 functions:
1. Planning: is the process of setting objectives and determining the actions in order to achieve them. Planning is anticipatory in nature and sets priorities. It is proactive rather than passive.
Planning asks the following questions:
What? When? Where? By whom? How?
while following a series of steps:
Defining Objectives (setting objectives or goals)
Determining the current status with respect to the objectives (being aware of opportunities)
Determining planning premises (analysing the situation for external factors and forecasting future trends; generation of future scenarios)
Identifying alternative (best alternative to accomplish the objectives)
Choosing an alternative (selecting the course of action to be pursued)
Formulating support plans (arranging for human and material resources)
Implementing the plan (action stage which also involves evaluation)
2. Organising: is the process of combining the work which individuals or groups have to perform with facilities necessary for its execution such that the duties performed provide the best channels for efficient, systematic, positive and co-ordinated application of available effort.
Organising is characterised by:
Division of work or specialisation: Activities are assigned to different people who are specialists in that area, for specialisation improves efficiency.
Orientation towards goals: it harmonises the individual goals of employees with the overall goals of the institution.
Composition of individuals and groups: individuals are grouped into departments and their work is coordinated and directed towards organisational goals.
Differentiated functions: the entire work is divided and assigned to individuals so that the organisation‟s objectives are achieved. While each individual performs a different task, each one also coordinates with the tasks of others.
Continuous process: groups of people with defined relationships with each other work together to achieve the goals of the organisation. These relationships do not end once the task is completed.
Delegation of authority: the levels of hierarchy are determined and the span of control is determined via formal relationships.
Establishing a communication channel: for effective decision making, coordination, control, supervision and feedback, motivation and redressing problems or grievances encountered.
3. Directing: is the art or process of influencing people such that they willingly strive to achieve group goals. It focuses on the development of willingness to work with zeal and confidence, provides adequate guidelines to complete the task, and motivates individuals to achieve goals in a coordinated manner. It also focuses on exercising leadership while determining responsibility and accountability.
4. Controlling: involves measuring and monitoring performance in accordance with plans and taking corrective action when required. It establishes performance standards based on the objectives, measures and reports actual performance compares the two and takes corrective or preventive action as necessary.
Thus controlling indicates the quantum of goals achieved, the extent of deviation from actual plans, generates accurate information and requisite feedback. Thus controlling focuses upon the difference between planned and actual performance. Controlling is especially concerned with the areas of Institutional Budget (finance in terms of income and expenditure), Institutional Supplies (stationery and material equipment), Library (maintenance and up gradation), Teaching-learning Process, Accounts and School Records and Discipline (staff and students).
5. Evaluating: is the process of measuring and assessing the achievement of objectives while providing an insight into strengths and weaknesses and planning for future endeavours. Evaluation helps determine the effectiveness of plans for both administrators and other stakeholders like teachers, staff, students and parents, as also the extended community. It seeks to document the objectives that have been met and to provide information to all concerned stakeholders regarding achievement, obstacles and corrective action or improvements. Thus evaluation focuses upon Process (how is the plan being carried out), Outcome (achievement of objectives), and Impact (effect of the plans initiated). In an educational setting, evaluation of the following areas is carried out
Objectives Content: Selection, Validity, Relevance, Appropriateness
Processes: teacher activities, pupil activities, instructional material, teaching methods
Outcome: Assessment and Feedback
ii) Evolution of Concept of Management in Education
Educational management as a field of study and practice was derived from management principles first applied to industry and commerce, mainly in the United States. Theory development largely involved the application of industrial models to educational settings. As the subject became established as an academic field in its own right, its theorists and practitioners began to develop alternative models based on their observation of, and experience in, schools and colleges. By the 21st century the main theories, had either been developed in the educational context or had been adapted from industrial models to meet the specific requirements of schools and colleges. Educational management has progressed from being a new field dependent upon ideas developed in other settings to become an established field with its own theories and research. There is no single all-embracing theory of educational management. In part this reflects the astonishing diversity of educational institutions, ranging from small rural elementary schools to very large universities and colleges. It relates also to the varied nature of the problems encountered in schools and colleges, which require different approaches and solutions. Above all, it reflects the multifaceted nature of theory in education and the social sciences: “Students of educational management who turn to organisational theory for guidance in their attempt to understand and manage educational institutions will not find a single, universally applicable theory but a multiplicity of theoretical approaches each jealously guarded by a particular epistemic community” – P.Ribbins
iii) Educational Administration:
Educational Management and Educational Administration are terms used interchangeably. However, Educational Administration is a specialised activity which runs the entire educational programme composed of human and material resources in an organised manner towards a fruitful and constructive goal. Educational institutions operate in a dynamic environment. They therefore must constantly identify and implement improvements in their own setup. Doing so requires the administrators, faculty, and staff to constantly access training and developmental opportunities. The process of continuous improvement thrives when the mindset of the stakeholders is geared towards constant monitoring, problem identification and research.
Educational Administration therefore performs a three-fold task to ensure efficient working, namely,
Stating the specific purpose and mission of education in general and of institutions in particular.
Ensuring that work is productive by nurturing human resources to be productive in their endeavours.
Designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals work together in groups efficiently to accomplish set goals.
Thus, Educational Administration deals with the optimal functioning of the institution by developing the human personality in a balanced manner. Educational Administration is concerned with the efficiency and commitment that manpower evinces in the pursuit of goals. It reiterates practical measures adopted to ensure that the system of work assists the educational process and helps realise the set goals and objectives for the benefit of all stakeholders.
The main Functions of Educational Administration are:
Direction (line of action)
Supervision (of work done in the field)
Advice (methods of work)
Stimulation (work efficiency)
Exploration (new vistas)
Leading (learners‟ programmes)
Assistance (adopting feedback, diagnosing weaknesses)
In Execution lies the foundation of an institution. Execution not only points out what resources are needed but also the sources of procurement. These resources may include material resources like the building, furniture, library, laboratories, non-material resources like personnel, and other stakeholders like students and parents and abstract resources like vision, mission statement, ideology and values. The Administrative Executive Body systematically plans, arranges for and uses these resources in order to achieve its goals.
The vision and mission statement of the institution serves to direct the institution in its quest to achieve its goals. Educational Administration ensures that the directives are upheld during curriculum construction and academic planning.
Supervision ensures that the plans are being executed according to the directives. It thus enhances the quality of work done and the ensuing accomplishments.
Educational Administration analyses the work and manner in which work is done. It weighs the pros and cons and then puts into action plans which help remove the weaknesses and serve to accomplish the set goals.
Educational Administration initiates research, adopts and adapts to new methods and techniques in order to enhance learning opportunities.
Lead / Assist:
Educational Administration not only lays down the directives but also provides the requisite support system to enable the efficient and effective fruition of the set objectives or goals......FOR MORE CLICK HERE